3 Mischenko A.V., Mischenko V.A. Factors which influence the development of post-vaccination immunity in livestock
The animal production efficiency depends on many factors; animal health is the main among them. The greatest damage to animal production is caused by diseases, especially of viral etiology. Most of them are controlled by vaccination, which can significantly limit the spread of infection, reduce the number of animals with clinical signs and eradicate the disease by creating a population (collective) immunity. At the same time, there is often a certain percentage of animals in the vaccinated population that do not develop an immune response to the vaccine. A large number of factors influences the development of the immunity. The main one is the immunodeficiency of animals. The paper presents data on factors that cause immunodeficiency in livestock and influence the development of post-vaccination population immunity. Key words: livestock, population immunity, preventive vaccination, immunodeficiency, metabolic diseases, mycotoxins, biogeochemical province (zone).
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
7 Gordienko L.N., Novikov A.N., Kulikova E.V. Effectiveness of the differential test at using in the diagnostics of reindeer brucellosis
Reindeer brucellosis is registration at several North districts Russian Federation. The vaccine is using to stop the spread of infection. On the territory of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area are used vaccines, witch prepared of low agglutination strain Brucella abortus 82. This vaccine is consisting of Brucella cultures at S- and R-forms. Animals that are subjected to serological tests earlier than six months after vaccination, can give off false positives. These animals are recognized as sick and deleted from the herd. We suggest to using in serological test R-antigen with the standard S-antigen. This enable to difference post-vaccination reaction from infected animals. As a result, we have improved the reliability of laboratory researches and the quality of epizootological monitoring. This way you can keep the animals in the herd and get an economic effect. Key words: reindeer, brucellosis, vaccine, immunity, serum, differential test, antigen.
10 Sakidibirov O.P., Dzhambulatov Z.M., Baratov M.O. Ring reaction with milk for diagnostic of brucellosis in lacting cows and goats
The peculiarity of the national factor and the nutritional habits of the local population, along with the intensification of animal husbandry in the private sector, leaves its mark on the dynamics of the infectious process. The practice of brucellosis control dictates the need to have a faster and at the same time simpler method for diagnosing brucellosis, which would accelerate and bring diagnostics closer to a practical veterinarian, directly to production. This article aims to study the dynamics of the infectious process in brucellosis of cows and goats using a ring reaction with milk. Key words: brucellosis, animal husbandry, diagnosis, brucellosis antigen, infection, milk.
13 Babii A.V., Kovalchuk S.N. Molecular-genetic aspects of interaction of the virus of enzootic bovine leukosis with the host genome
The enzootic leukemia of cattle is one of the unsolved problems of modern cattle breeding. Currently, the main approach to its solution is the early detection and removal of infected animals from herds, which is associated with significant economic losses of livestock farms. The causative agent of the disease is the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) – an oncogenic retrovirus from the genus Deltaretrovirus. To date, the molecular genetic mechanisms of the BLV interaction with the host genome remain poorly understood. This review presents generalized data on the features of the genomic organization of BLV, integration sites of BLV proviral DNA in the genome of cattle at various stages of pathogenesis, structural aberrations in proviral DNA of BLV and their role in the pathogenesis of enzootic cattle leukosis. Key words: BLV, leukosis, integration, provirus, genome, interaction, pathogenesis.
19 Yelkina Yu.S., Michalishin D.V., Starikov V.А., Guseva М.N., Doronin М.I., Lozovoy D.A., Borisov А.V. The study of the immunogenic activity of emulsion FMD vaccine from strain А/ARRIAH/2015 (А/ASIA/G-VII)
This article presents the results of studies of the immunogenic and protective activity of emulsion FMD vaccine from strain A/ARRIAH /2015 (A/ASIA/G-VII), as well as data on the study of the antigenic properties of vaccine strains A/Kuti/2013, A/Turkey/2006 , A22 Iraq/64, A/Kabardino-Balkarian/2013. It was shown that the proposed vaccine does not stimulate the production of antibodies to non-structural proteins of the FMD virus, induces the production of a high level of antibodies against strain A/ARRIAH/2015 (A/ASIA/G-VII), providing effective protection of susceptible animals against a homologous strain. Key words: foot and mouth disease type A, FMD vaccine, antigenic properties, neutralization reaction.
25 Krutko S.A., Malogolovkin A.S., Koltsova G.S. Deletion of the EP402R gene cancels the protectivity of ASF virus strain KK262/C
We present the results of series of animal trials demonstrating that the EP402R gene deletion from the African swine fever virus attenuated strain KK-262/С significantly affects the protective potential of the virus. The results of experimental infection with the virulent strain Kongo-49 of immunized pigs showed 100 % mortality. It is known that the attenuated strain KK-262/С provides 80 % protection from challenging by homologous virulent ASFV strain Kongo-49. Generated data indicate that the CD2v glycoprotein of ASFV is an essential component to elucidate the protective immune response in homologous infection. Key words: African swine fever virus, attenuated strains, vaccines, dCD2v, deletion variants.
28 Yatsentyuk S.P., Rudnyayev D.A., Pobolelova Yu.I., Krasnikova M.S., Kozlova D.A. The problem of bovine histophilosis and Histophilus somni DNA detection by real-time PCR
The article presents data on an infectious disease in cattle – histophilosis. The results of the development of a Real-time PCR assay for detecting Histophilus somni DNA are presented. By PCR, 946 samples of different biological material of cattle were studied, the high occurrence of the pathogen was shown in bovine semen (72,1 %), tissues (32,1 %), and swabs (15,29 – 34,6 %). The assay can be used in diagnostic laboratories to study the prevalence of bovine histophilosis in Russia for the rapid, specific, and effective identification of H. somni. Key words: H. somni, DNA, PCR, histophilosis, cattle.
34 Shakarboev E.B., Kaniyazov A.Zh., Golovanov V.I., Abduganiyev O.A. Epizootology of horse setariosis in Karakalpakstan
Helminthological autopsy of 143 horses was carried out in several areas of Karakalpakstan. Of these, 41 heads were infected with Setaria equine nematodes. The degree of invasion of setariosis averaged 28,7 %, with an intensity of invasion of 1 – 56 specimens. The seasonal and age-related dynamics of invasion of horses by setaria were studied. The maximum infection rate was found in adult horses in the autumn and winter periods of the year. The mosquitoes Cules pipiens and Aedes maculipennis were installed as an intermediate host for the Setaria equina nematode in Karakalpakstan. Spontaneous infection by the larvae of this nematode was 0,18 – 0,30 %, the invasion intensity was 1 – 4 specimens on the insect. Key words: horse, nematode, Setaria equine, setariosis, epizootology, Karakalpakstan.
37 Kuznetsov D.N. Ashworthiosis – a potentially dangerous helminthosis of ruminants in European Russia
The spreading of blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in European Russia is detected. The nematode dwells in an abomasum and rarely in omasum and thin intestines. The parasite was brought from Asian part of Russia with introduced sika deer and marals. Currently, A. sidemi is detected in aboriginal wild ruminants (elks and European roe deer). The disease can be dangerous for domestic ruminants too. In-vivo diagnosis is complicated due to life-cycle features of this nematode: in cold season its development slows down and shedding of the eggs is stopped. Key words: nematodes of ruminants, Ashworthius sidemi, wild ruminants.
40 Mikhaylov E.V., Shabunin B.V., Vorotnikova S.M., Lomakina K.G. Biochemical parameters of blood of dogs of different ages with babesiosis
The article presents data on a biochemical blood test of dogs of different ages when diagnose was determined. The study was conducted on 60 dogs spontaneously infected with Babesia canis, which were sent to a veterinary clinic for help. Animals were divided into 3 age groups: group 1 – up to 2 years old, group 2 – older than 2 but younger than 7 years old, group 3 – 7 years old and older. It was revealed that at the time of diagnosis, the smallest number of altered biochemical parameters was in group 1. In group 2, a similar picture was observed, but the number of altered biochemical parameters was 15 % more. In group 3, the worst picture was observed, since more than 60 % of biochemical parameters took values, which did not correspond to the physiological norm. Key words: canine babesiosis, diagnostics, age, biochemical markers.
44 Zhukov M.S., Alekhin Yu.N. Morbidity and survival of calves with different birth weights
The aim of this work is to study the effect of calf body weight at birth on adaptation indicators in the early neonatal period, morbidity and mortality in the next 4 months of their life. The study involved newborn calves (n=101) of the Holstein-Friesian breed, which, depending on their birth weight, were divided into four groups: No. 1 (n=27, control) – calves with a body weight of 29,0 – 36,0 kg; No. 2 (n=27) – 27,0 – 28,9 kg; No. 3 (n=23) – 25,0 – 26,9 kg and No. 4 (n=24) – 24,0 – 24,9 kg. At the age of 1 and 12 hours, the adaptive potential of the animals was assessed, and in the next 4 months the level of general morbidity and mortality was recorded. It has been established that there is an inverse relationship between the birth weight of calves and the indicators of their adaptation in the early neonatal period. At the same time, within 60 minutes after birth, all newborns, regardless of their weight, have a relatively high level of adaptive potential (CA≤ 2,0). However, if during the next 11 hours of life in calves with a body weight of 27,0 to 36,0 kg the adaptation coefficient does not change significantly, then in animals with a lower weight, a weakening of adaptive capabilities is observed (CA>2,0). The severity of maladjustment syndrome in hypotrophic patients increases with an increase in body weight deficit at birth. At the same time, the risk of pathology increases, as indicated by the revealed direct correlation between the level of the adaptation coefficient and the likelihood of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases during the first months of life. The revealed features of the level of adaptive potential, morbidity and survival of calves with different birth weights indicate the need for a differentiated approach to their rearing, which must be taken into account when developing new and adjusting existing technologies in cattle breeding. Key words: newborn calves, hypotrophy, adaptation, morbidity, survival.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
49 Mishina N.N., Semenov E.I., Khasiyatullin A.F., Potekhina R.M., Matrosova L.E., Kanarskaya Z.A., Gematdinova V.M. Preventive efficiency of enterosorbents of different nature in polymycotoxicosis of pigs
The article presents the results of studying the effectiveness of enterosorbents (modified shungite of the Zazhoginsky deposit of the Republic of Karelia, zeolite of the Shatrashansky deposit of the Republic of Tatarstan and β-glucan) in pig polymycotoxicosis. Four groups of four heads each were formed from selected piglets of 1,5 months of age with a body weight of 25 kg. The young of the first group served as biological control and for 60 days received only the main diet (MN), consisting of full-diet feed; the second is MN contaminated with Т-2 toxin (0,2 mg/kg feed), zearalenone (1 mg) and deoxynivalenol (0,5 mg); the third is MN infected with these mycotoxins and zeolite in combination with schungite (70:30) at a dose of 0,25 % of the diet; fourth is a toxic combination feed into which zeolite was administered in combination with schungite (70:30) at a dose of 0,25 % and β-glucan at a dose of 0,05% of the diet. Hemato-biochemical indicators indicate the advisability of including fodder additives of different nature in the diets of pigs against the background of polymycotoxicosis. The test combination of zeolite and schungite (70:30) at a dose of 0,5 % of the diet at this pathology according to the antitoxic action can be conditionally equated with mixtures of zeolite and schungite (70:30) at a dose of 0,25 % in combination with β-glucan at a dose of 0,05 % of the diet. β-glucans when included in the diet of piglets contributed to a more significant increase in body weight. Key words: mycotoxicosis, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, shungite, zeolite, glucomannans, prevention.
53 Ostrenko K.S., Galochkina V.P. The influence of water-soluble antioxidant on the productivity of chickens and hatching quality of eggs
The aim of the study was to obtain physiological, biochemical and zootechnical data confirming the effective use of the antioxidant dihydroethoxychine to increase productivity in laying hens. The experiment was carried out on 2 groups of laying hens of the breeding herd, selected by 100 heads by random sampling. For 41 days, the chickens of the experimental group received a basic diet with the addition of dihydroethoxychine (DGE) in the amount of 100 mg/kg of feed. On the 25th day of the experiment, blood samples (n=5) were taken for biochemical studies. In the experimental group, the concentration of cholesterol in the fraction of high-density lipoproteins increased twofold (P<0,01) and in the fraction of low-density lipoproteins decreased by almost 50 % (P<0,01) against the control. The concentration of MDA in the blood of chickens in the experimental group was 82,00 % relative to that in the cotrol, and in the yolk of the egg – only 37,42 %. Egg production of chickens in the experimental group was higher than in the control by 7,3 % (P<0,1). Hatchability of chickens in the experimental group increased by 14,6 % (P<0,01) relative to control. It was concluded that the tested water-soluble antioxidant has a positive effect on the biological functions and productive parameters of laying hens. Key words: laying hens, antioxidants, nonspecific resistance, egg production, egg quality.
58 Lugovaya I.S. The use of biostimulants to activate natural resistance and biochemical processes in the body of daily quail
Using a biostimulant composition before incubation of Japanese quail eggs allowed us to increase hatching by 15,19 % (p<0,001), and egg hatchability by 10,48 % (p<0,001) as compared to the control. Moreover, the temperature of the test quails was significantly higher by 1,9 0C (p<0,05) as compared to the control, which indicates the higher biological usefulness of young birds. The aforementioned is associated with metabolic processes activated, and nonspecific resistance of the body, which was expressed in an increase in the blood serum bactericidal activity by 3,8 % (p<0,05), lysozyme by 6,4 % (p<0,05), total protein in blood serum by 18 % (p<0,05), and α-amylase activity by 6,9 % (p<0,05) relative to the control with corresponding changes in other blood parameters. Thus, the use of the biostimulant composition contributed to an increase in viability, optimization of the temperature status, and the implementation of mechanisms of nonspecific resistance of quails. Key words: quails, embryogenesis, natural resistance, biostimulants.
62 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY