CONTENTS №11-2023

3 Gulyukin M.I., Isaev Yu.G.  To the 125th anniversary of the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine

The year of 2023 marks the 125th Anniversary of the foundation of the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine. The Article reflects main stages of its formation, areas of research activities, and current structure of the Federal Scientific Center, and lists key achievements and development prospects. The main task of the Institute is scientific support for the veterinary safety in the Russian livestock breeding, and control of the most dangerous and widespread infectious diseases of animals, fish, and bees. Thanks to the Institute personnel, several effective diagnostic and specific prevention tools for infectious diseases have been implemented into veterinary practice, with widespread use of a complex of biotechnology and bioengineering methods. Since the Institute establishment, fundamentally new scientific areas have been developed on the most significant problems of veterinary science, thanks to which fundamental changes have taken place in the infectious animal disease control and in other branches of scientific and practical veterinary medicine. Key words: VIEV, anniversary, 125 years, history, science, veterinary medicine.



10 Ivanov E.V., Kapustin A.V., Laishevtsev A.I., Supova A.V., Aliper T.I., Verkhovsky O.A. The effectiveness of the Kombovak-Endomast vaccine in the fight against infectious mastitis and endometritis in cows

The publication presents the results obtained in the course of testing the effectiveness of a new domestic immunobiological agent - a vaccine against infectious mastitis and endometritis of cows. A properly developed and registered drug is aimed at the specific prevention of infectious mastitis and endometritis of cows caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the implementation of the experiment, it was found that vaccination of pregnant cows and heifers with this drug can reduce the number of cases of clinically pronounced mastitis by 7.8 times, subclinical - by 5.47 times, endometritis - by 3.75 times, and also receive premium milk due to a significant decrease in the number of somatic cells in the collective milk samples of the experimental group compared to the control group. During the entire period of observation of animals, the protection index did not fall below 80%, which indicates a high protective activity of the Kombovak-Endomast preparation. Key words: Somatic cells, infection, pathogens, antibiotics, therapy, prevention, vaccination.



14 Gulyukin A.M., Shulyak A.F., Velichko G.N., Gorokhov D.Yu. Detection of epizootically significant bovine viruses in wild animals

Genomes of viruses causing outbreaks in cattle have been detected in 10 wild species living in various conditions. Rotavirus, IBR and PI-3 viruses were the most common, while coronavirus and VD virus observed much less. Mouflons, roe deers and sika deers were found to have the most diverse spectrum of viruses. None of the target viruses were detected in moose. Sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses were absent in all materials. The results obtained indicate the ability of target pathogens to infect a wide range of hosts. Positive RT PCR was recorded during investigation of pulmonary and mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, trachea, kidney, small intestine, naso-pharyngial smears. Thus, epizootically significant bovine viruses have the ability not only to infect different animals, but also to initiate a generalized process in them. Key words:  wild animals, viruses, receptivity, distribution, PCR.


17 Mishchenko A.V.  Foot-and-mouth disease in wild animals

This article provides a brief overview of foot-and mouth disease viral infection in naturally susceptible wild animals.  The relevance of this publication is due to the spread and circulation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in populations of naturally susceptible wild and farm animals living in the countries of Asia, Indian Peninsula, the Middle East and Africa, as well as potential danger posed by wild artiodactyl animals in the transmission of the pathogen to farm animals especially in the regions practicing transhumance. Key words: foot-and-mouth disease, foot-and-mouth virus, wild animals, epizootic process, farm animals.


24 Alexeyenkova S.V. Haemorragic vasculitis as complication of respiratory infections of horses

The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge about the etiology of equine hemorrhagic purpura, pathogenesis, diagnostic tools and treatment methods. It has been established that the most common cause of purpura is a previous infection caused by gram-positive strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. – strangles pathogens. Other possible causes include bacterial or viral infections with Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, or equine influenza and herpes viruses, respectively. The pathogenesis of purpura involves a typical type III hypersensitivity reaction, which is associated with the deposition of an antigen-antibody complex in the walls of blood vessels and the subsequent production of activated complement components. In typical cases, on physical examination, horses are unwilling to move and are lame, especially on the hind limbs. Well-demarcated subcutaneous edema of all four limbs is noted. On the skin of the distal extremities, multifocal ulcerative lesions are observed. For diagnosis, histological, bacteriological and serological examination is used. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is the primary histopathological finding in the skin and many internal organs. Other signs are infarcts of the muscles and intestines. The main goals of treatment are suppression of the immune response with long-term administration of corticosteroids and the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Key words: streptococcus, strangles, horses, vasculitis, purpura hemorragica, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory diagnostic.


28 Ovchinnikov R.S., Gaynullina A.G., Samylina I.V., Kapustin A.V. Clinically significant fungi in wild and exotic animals

A mycological examination of wild and exotic animals of 15 different species suspected of infectious diseases was conducted. Of the 18 samples, fungi were found in 72 %. In most cases, fungi were isolated from skin lesions (61%), as well as from the respiratory tract and internal organs. 16 fungal isolates were obtained, including 10 yeast fungi, 5 hyphomycetes and 1 ascomycete. Yeast fungi were represented by species of the genera Candida, Geotrichum and Trichosporon, mycelial fungi were represented by representatives of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Beauveria, Phoma. Of particular note is the isolation of Trichosporon lactis from pathological muscle tissue from sika deer, Phoma herbarum and Beauveria bassiana from their brains. The presented data demonstrate that animals in the wild are susceptible to mycotic diseases, and this subject requires further study. Mycosis of wild animals, which are kept in captivity in zoos, safari parks, dolphinariums, etc., is also a problem to be investigated.  Key words:  mycoses, pathogenic fungi, wild animals, fungal infections.  


33 Shabeikin A.A., Belimenko V.V., Patrikeev V.V., Gulyukin E.A.,  Kuzmin V.A. Current characteristics of African swine fever epizootic process in wildlife in the Russian Federation

The incidence of ASF in the wild boar population in the Russian Federation is at high level, slightly inferior to the incidence recorded among domestic pigs. Considering that the actual incidence rates of wild boars can significantly exceed the official statistics, continuous monitoring of the epizootological situation in the wild with analysis and assessment of the risk of the formation of natural foci of ASF in various natural ecosystems in the country is necessary. In the paper an analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of the development of ASF epizootic process in wild boar population was carried out. The role of nature conservations in stable epizootic zones formation was investigated. Key words: African swine fever, Asfivirus, specially protected natural areas, geoinformation technologies, epizotology, risk analysis and assessment.


40 Zavyalova E.A., Droshnev A.E., Kalinina N.R., Alontseva D.A., Bulina K.Yu., Karpova M.A. Ulcerative dermal necrosis of salmon: the situation in Russian Federation

This study evaluates the current epizootic state of ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN) of wild salmon in the Kola and Tuloma rivers of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the authors' own research in 2015 – 2019, as well as information provided in open sources of information in 2022. It has been established that the pathologies identified by us in 2015 – 2019 and characteristic of the UDN, according to colleagues from the Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO), have been less common since 2021, which may indicate the end of the epizootic cycle of the disease, while the mechanism of this has not been identified. However, this does not mean that the danger to wild Kola salmon and Atlantic salmon grown in aquaculture no longer exists. It is necessary to take measures to continue studies of the detected pathologies, as well as to understand the patterns and assess possible damage to populations of particularly valuable fish species. Key words: epizootic monitoring, aquaculture, Atlantic salmon, ulcerative skin necrosis, ulcerative dermal necrosis, fish diseases.


46 Isaev Yu.G., Sotnikov A.N., Gulyukin M.I., Stepanova T.V. The problem of monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of diseases of bee in specially protected natural areas

The article deals with the issues and problems of monitoring, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of bees and other useful entomofauna in specially protected natural areas (SPNA). in the implementation of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in the apiary. The purpose of writing this article is to reveal the actual problems in the organization of the work of the veterinary service on the territory of protected areas, which currently has a number of serious difficulties. For this, the influencing factors that impede the work of these services are considered and an attempt is made to offer the best solution. Key words: specially protected natural areas (SPNA), honey bee, epizootic process, bee diseases, monitoring, diagnostics and treatment.



51 Andreyanov O.N. Alveolar echinococcus hosts in Central Russia

The species composition of the hosts of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in Central Russia has been studied. The work was carried out in the period 2007-2023. The material for the research was corpses, carcasses, fragments of organs and tissues of animals. Animals were examined by the method of complete helminthological autopsies according to K.I. Scriabin (1928). The discovered cestodes of the genus Echinococcus were fixed in 70 % alcohol. To detect the imaginal form of E. multilocularis, 431 carnivores of 3 families were examined, including 295 common foxes, 23 European wolves, 36 domestic and 30 raccoon dogs, 33 domestic cats, 6 lynx, 8 brown bears. For registration of E. multilocularis, 278 rodents and insectivores were studied. The causative agent of cestodosis was found in 58 foxes (19,7 %), 4 raccoon dogs (13,3 %), 4 wolves (17,4 %) and one domestic dog (2,7 %). Larval cyst E. multilocularis was recorded in river beaver (Castor fiber). The invasion intensity of the presented host was 0, 4 %. Unfavorable territories are noted in the Kaluga, Vladimir, Ryazan, Moscow and Yaroslavl regions of the region. Key words: animals, larvocyst, cestode, Echinococcus multilocularis.


55 Khristianovsky P.I., Grudinin D.A., Maltsev S.S., Belimenko V.V. Seasonal dynamics of helminthiasis of ungulate animals in the steppe hospital "Orenburg Tarpania"

The research is carried out in the Breeding Center of Steppe animals of the Orenburg region. According to the data of coprological studies for two annual cycles (2019 – 2020 – 2021), parasitization of intestinal strongylates of several species with low intensity of invasion was detected in Przhevalsky horses and Kiangs. During the year, the infection remains at a relatively stable level, with slight fluctuations. Paraskaris equorum eggs were also found at low intensity of invasion. Domestic horses of the adjacent territory in the same periods showed a decrease in infection with Strongylates in winter and its increase in summer and autumn. There were no clinical signs of helminthiasis in Przewalski horses and Kiang. Apparently, helminthiasis of ungulates in the "Orenburg Tarpania" occurs in the form of immunizing subinvasion. It is recommended to carry out deworming of ungulates in protected areas only during the importation of animals from other regions. In the future, it is not required. Key words: Przewalski's horses, kiang, helminthiasis, rewilding, Orenburg Tarpania.


60 Panova O.A., Khrustalev A.V., Andreyanov O.N., Kuznetsova A.D., Kuznetsov K.S. Helminths of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Central Russia

The red fox is involved in the spread of pathogens of parasitic diseases, including zoonoses. Foxes become indicators of the contamination of the territory with pathogens, making it possible to identify natural foci of parasitic diseases. The aim of the research was to investigate the helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Central region of the European part of Russia. As a result of the authopsies carried out, 25 species of pathogens were registered in the red fox: Alaria alata (80,9 %), Uncinaria stenocephala (76,2 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (73,8 %), Crenosoma vulpis (69,0 %), Pearsonema plica (61,9 %), Toxascaris leonina (52,4 %), Eucoleus boehmi (52,4 %), Taenia sp. (52,4 %), Apophallus donicus (45,2 %), Capillaria paranalis (41,6 %), Aonchotheca putorii (40,5 %), Echinochasmus perfoliatus (40,5 %), Metorchis bilis (40,5 %), Toxocara canis (38,0 %), Echinococcus multilocularis (26,2 %), Macracanthorhynchus catulinus (26,2 %), Opisthorchis felineus (26,2 %), Pseudamphistomum truncatum (19,0 %), Trichinella sp. (11,9 %), Dirofilaria immitis (7,1 %), Molineus patens (7,1 %), Ancylostoma caninum (4,7 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (4,7 %), Gnathostoma spinigerum (2,4 %), Strongyloides sp. (2,4 %). Among them 12 species consider as zoonotic: G. spinigerum, U. stenocephala, A. caninum, T. canis, E. aerophilus, Trichinella sp., E. multilocularis, A. donicus, E. perfoliatus, M. bilis, O. felineus, P. truncatum. Key words: helminths, zoonoses, red fox, Vulpes vulpes.



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CONTENTS №11-2023