3 Ovchinnikov R.S. Diagnostic study of mycobiota of skin lesions in sables Martes zibellina by means of metagenomic sequencing
The metagenomic sequencing was applied for the first time for studying mycobiota and for detection of pathogenic fungi in sables affected by skin lesions. A high sensitivity of the method was established – 249 taxa of fungi were found, represented by the divisions Ascomycota (72 %) and Basidiomycota (26 %). Keratinophilic fungi of the order Onygenales accounted for 9 % of the total mycobiota, including species of the genera Trichophyton, Arthroderma, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea, and Emmonsia. In total, 16 species of clinically significant fungi were identified, some of them were detected on the territory of the Russian Federation for the first time. The study demonstrated the high informative value of metagenomic sequencing and the possibility of its use for detailed diagnosis of infections caused by pathogenic fungi and their associations. Key words: mycobiota, mycoses, dermatomycoses, pathogenic fungi, metagenomic sequencing, fungal infections, dermatophytes, sable.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
10 Tyurin V.G., Semenov V.G., Nikitin D.A., Boronin V.V., Ivanova R.N., Kolesnichenko I.S. Realization of the bioresource potential of the body chickens of a birding broiler herd on the background of activation of non-specific resistance
The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of using immunostimulants in industrial poultry farming. The work was carried out using biological preparations developed by scientists of the Chuvash State Agrarian University: Prevention-N-C and PS-7 (V.G. Semenov et al.). The studies were carried out on the basis of Agroholding Yurma LLC of the Cheboksary region, in accordance with the research plan of the Chuvash State Agrarian University, the Chuvash Republican Veterinary Laboratory of the State Veterinary Service of the Chechen Republic and in the laboratory of clinical and hematological research of the Chuvash State Agrarian University. It was established that the hens of the parent flock of broilers of the Hubbard F-15 cross were kept in accordance with zootechnical standards, and feeding was carried out in accordance with the requirements of the norms and feeding rations. It was revealed that feeding chickens of the parent flock of broilers with biological products PS-7, tested earlier, and Prevention-N-C, created and used for the first time, with water at a dose of 0,1 ml/kg of body weight at the age of 21 – 23 weeks with an interval of 7 days did not affected the physiological state. Selective mobilization of morphological and biochemical blood profiles, cellular and humoral factors of non-specific resistance of the organism of chickens of the parent stock of broilers was established. Immunoprophylaxis of the body of chickens of the parent stock of broilers with PS-7 and Prevention-N-C biological products contributed to an intensive increase in egg production. The increase in such indicators as the yield of eggs for the initial and middle laying hens, the intensity of egg production, is due to an increase in the gross production of eggs, a decrease in mortality and zootechnical marriage in the experimental groups. Due to the fact that the biological preparations PS-7 and Prevention-N-C, used in the course of the experiment, proved the expected positive effect and high results, we recommend using them to stimulate cellular and humoral factors of non-specific resistance of the bird organism. Key words: biological products, chickens, blood, bioresource potential, nonspecific resistance of the organism, egg production.
18 Kichemazova N.V., Khizhnyakova M.A., Lyapina A.M., Kolosova A.A., Feodorova V.A. Vaccine prophylaxis of listeriosis in farm animals
Listeriosis is a dangerous infectious disease caused in major cases by Listeria monocytogenes. Wild, domesticated and farmed animals as well as humans, especially those who are immunocompromised, including newborns, pregnant women, and the elderly, are susceptible to listeria infection. Listeriosis remains the one of the global problems of human and animal health due to the wide distribution of the pathogen in the environment, incidences of severe forms of the disease with high mortality, as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. In the absence of available effective and safe means of specific prevention, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) establishes an implementation of veterinary sanitary and hygienic measures as the main instrument to control listeriosis. At the same time, the searching for strategies to develop vaccines against listeriosis is actively going in the world, but so far, no vaccine candidates that meet modern international requirements for preventive drugs in terms of immunogenicity and safety have been reported. The article is devoted to the history of the development and use of the domestic vaccine against listeriosis based on the attenuated Lm strain AUF in our country. Key words: listeriosis, Listeria monocytogenes, farm animals, vaccines, AUF.
26 Shaikhulov R.R., Mannapova R.T. Candidamicosis of the digestive tract of geese
Candidiasis of the digestive tract disrupts the homeostasis of the bird organism and causes serious economic damage to goose breeding. Due to the desire to get more products, to the detriment of genetically incorporated mechanisms, the growing body of goslings receives a huge load in the form of veterinary drugs, vaccinations and antiparasitic treatments. This leads to the activation of conditionally pathogenic microflora and creates favorable conditions for the active reproduction of Candida albicans. The paper presents the results of a study of the degree of activation of Candida albicans in the goiter, muscular and glandular sections of the stomach, small and large intestines during the development of candidiasis of the digestive tract of geese and the possibility of their prevention using the enzyme preparation lyticase in combination with probiotics and propolis. Key words: geese, candidiasis, goiter, stomach, intestines, lyticase, probiotic, propolis, Candida albicans.
31 Shchelkunova Yu.P., Baryshnikova E.I., Senina M.E., Kropocheva I. Yu., Recordatova S.A. Sensitivity of the laboratory methods for the herpesvirus disease diagnosis in a sturgeon hybrid
The article presents the results of a study comparing the sensitivity of two methods of laboratory diagnosis of Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) in a Russian and Siberian sturgeon hybrid during experimental infection. Pathological material was selected from sick fish at different stages of the disease development and studied by two methods by sensitive cell culture and Real-Time PCR using a new developed kit. The clinical and pathoanatomic signs, the duration of the course of the disease as well as the humoral immune response of this hybrid of sturgeon are presented. Key words: Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus disease, diagnosis of viral fish diseases, Real-Time PCR.
39 Kashkovskaya L.M., Novikova S.V., Panina Yu.V. Miocid® – prevention of mastitis in cows during the dry period
The drug Miocid® when used in cows during the dry period for the prevention of mastitis showed 100 % effectiveness. After the introduction of the drug in the nipple canal, a stable plug is created in the throughout the entire dry period, which prevents the penetration of pathogenic microflora into the nipple canal. Key words: mastitis, cows, bismuth subnitrate, Miocid®, milk.
41 Gazin A.A., Abramova E.V., Vatnikov Yu.A., Prozorovskiy I.E. Clinical and morphological characteristics of mixed testicular tumors in dogs
Mixed tumors are among the most common testicular neoplasms in dogs, in addition, they can often cause morphological difficulties in their classification. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and morphological characteristics of mixed testicular tumors in dogs. The study involved 99 dogs with testicular neoplasia in 2019 – 2020; only 9/99 had 10 mixed tumors: two neoplasms were detected in one dog at once. The mean age of the dogs was 10,7 years (range 6 to 13 years). Histological examination revealed the following combinations of mixed tumors: seminoma and Sertoli cell tumor; seminoma and interstitial cell tumor, interstitial cell tumor and Sertoli cell tumor. These neoplasms were localized both in the left and right testicles. Preoperative CBC results did not show significant deviations from the mean values of the sample, however, one dog had severe anemia and mild thrombocytopenia, which is more likely due to paraneoplastic syndrome caused in this patient by a mixed tumor, including component of Sertoli cell tumor. According to the results of a biochemical blood test, no significant abnormalities were found that could be directly related to mixed tumors. All 9 patients were followed up for a year, at the end of which 7/9 patients survived the year. Summing up the data obtained, the authors can recommend not using the term "mixed tumors" in the testes in dogs, but using a descriptive combination of detectable neoplasms, since the presented collective term does not describe the possible clinical signs and risks of developing paraneoplastic syndromes and complications. Key words: mixed tumors, testicles, dog, paraneoplastic syndrome, clinical and morphological characteristics.
46 Kachalin M.D., Pozyabin S.V. Partial osteotomy for correction of canine medial patellar luxation
The article gives current conceptions on the etiology and pathogenesis of various types and grades of canine patellar luxation, as well as statistical data on the prevalence of the pathology in terms of an animal breed, sex and age. The authors present a method for determining the stage of patellar luxation based on the degree of axial and angular deformities of the pelvic limb and consider the possibility of surgical correction by means of corrective osteotomy. The technique of partial osteotomy with the alignment of the tibial crest is introduced, which allows restoring the biomechanics of the limb in dogs with grades 1 to 3 of patellar luxation and shows its effectiveness in comparison with the classical transposition of tibial tuberosity. Key words: dog, canine, lameness, orthopedics, patellar luxation, stifle joint.
52 Mironova L.P., Sotnikova A.A., Mambetov U.R. Comprehensive diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs
The article identifies signs of diagnosing hyperadrenocorticism (HAK, Cushing's syndrome) in dogs, including increased activity and a biochemical blood test, studies to identify relevant pathologies, cortisol levels and its levels with creatinine, abdominal examinations, as well as more specific tests – a stimulating test with ACTH and dexamethasone suppression test. The polymorphism of the clinical manifestations of the disease and the characteristic changes in blood and urine parameters due to the excessive action of adrenal hormones are considered. Cushing's syndrome is one of the most common diseases of the endocrine system in dogs. There are three types of HAC: pituitary, adrenal and iatrogenic. Therefore, in order not to miss this pathology in animals, or vice versa, it is falsely diagnosed, an integrated approach is needed. Key words: hyperadrenocorticism, Cushing's syndrome, adrenal glands, endocrinology, diagnostics.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
58 Gaponov N.V. Biochemical parameters of blood of primates when white lupine is included in the structure of the diet
In this regard, the study of white lupine in primates and its influence on their biochemical blood parameters, in order to extrapolate the results to humans, is an urgent task. In the present study, we established the effect of white lupine with an alkaloid content of 0,02 % on the biochemical parameters of the blood of rhesus monkeys. We used the results of biochemical analysis of clinically healthy male M. mulatta at the age of 9 years and an average body weight of 10 kg. We studied both the main biochemical parameters (creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and total bilirubin), and additional parameters (calcium and phosphorus concentration), the activity of a number of enzymes (ALT-alanine aminotransferase, AST-aspartate aminotransferase, GGT-gamma-glutamyltransferase, LDH-lactate dehydrogenase), which are biochemical markers of damage to various systems and organs. The analysis of the research results as a result of the inclusion in the structure of the diet of white lupine with an alkaloidity of 0,02 %, showed the absence of pathological abnormalities in the liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscles, pancreas and bile ducts. The studied indicators were within the reference values, which indicate a normal metabolism and the absence of inflammatory processes in the body. Key words: white lupine, primates, recipe, enzyme, protein, alkaloid, blood.