3 Sudorgina T.E., Glotova T.I., Koteneva S.V., Nefedchenko A.V., Velker D.A., Glotov A.G. Clostridium infections in cattle: characteristics of the main etiological agents, prevention and control measures (review, part 1)
A review of the literature data on the problem of cattle clostridiosis is presented, including the modern classification of bacteria of the genus Clostridium and their role in the pathology of this animal species. The description of main pathogens of clostridiosis and factors of their toxigenicity is given. Calves up to six months old and highly productive animals after the first and second calving are most susceptible to infection. Recovered or infected animals can become subclinical carriers, releasing large numbers of microorganisms into the environment with manure, and play an important role in maintaining and maintaining the herd's stationary distress. The first part presents and discusses current information about infectious agents, epizootological data, sources and routes of infection, transmission factors and pathogenesis of clostridiosis. Key words: cattle, clostridiosis, anaerobic bacteria, toxins, pathogenesis.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
11 Arakelyan P.K., Khristenko N.V., Gaivoronskaya Yu.E., Dimova A.S., Dimov S.K., Yanchenko T.A. Manufacturability of different schemes of immunization of cattle against brucellosis with the possibility of early post-vaccination diagnosis
In a controlled production experiment on healthy cattle, advantages were revealed in the possibilities of providing early post-vaccination diagnosis of brucellosis in a scheme that provides for immunization and reimmunization of animals with a vaccine from strain B. abortus 19 by the conjunctival method compared with a scheme for subcutaneous application of a vaccine from strain B. abortus 82, almost at all times of postvaccination studies of sera blood. They were most pronounced by day 90 after reimmunization: SAT, SFT, RBT, IDR and IHAR were negative in all cases. In the study of brucellosis in blood serum in ELISA, reactions were noted in 33,3 % of cases and only doubtful. In the same period after revaccination, among animals immunized and reimmunized with the vaccine from strain B. abortus 82 subcutaneously, only SFT and IDR were completely negative. In SAT, 21,4 % of the studied samples reacted, in RBT– 42,8 %, in IHAR – 28,6 %, in ELISA – 50 % (including positive – 21,4 %, doubtful – 28,6 %). The feasibility of using milk in BMT, ELISA and IHAR to test animals for brucellosis was almost identical for both immunization and reimmunization schemes. The problem arising in a number of cases related to the specificity of indications of diagnostic tests with milk in cows with subclinical mastitis requires additional study. Key words: cattle, brucellosis, live vaccines from strains B. abortus 19, B. abortus 82, conjunctival and subcutaneous immunization, early postvaccination diagnosis, serological tests, serum, milk, manufacturability.
17 Baryshnikov P.I. Epizootic process of infectious diseases of wild birds in the forest-steppe area of the Altai Region
This paper discusses the test results of pathological material and blood serum obtained from wild birds in the forest-steppe area of the Altai Region to detect bacterial infectious agents and antibodies to the viruses of avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis and infectious bursal disease. Key words: salmonella, pasteurella, E. coli, bacterial infections, viral infections, wild birds, infection rate, influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bursal disease, associative course.
24 Zavyalova E.A., Droshnev A.E., Alontseva D.A., Bulina Ch.Yu., Karpova M.A. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon fish using molecular genetic and bacterial methods
In order to screen the spread of Renibacterium salmoninarum in aquaculture in Russia for 2021 – 2022, 6333 specimens of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), 376 specimens of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), 460 specimens of salmon fish of other species (whitefish – Coregonus lavaretus L.; peled – Coregonus peled L.; broad whitefish – Coregonus nasus L.) from 71 fish farms in 16 regions of the Russian Federation, as well as neighboring countries with which fish planting material is traded. The results of a molecular biological study in PCR with various detection options (electrophoretic, real-time) and isolation of bacteria on a selective SKDM medium were analyzed. For the work, biopsy material of internal organs (kidney, liver, spleen) was used, which were homogenized in salt-peptone water, centrifuged, the precipitate was resuspended in peptone salt solution, then part of the material was distributed on Petri dishes with SKDM agar, and the rest of the sample was used for PCR. Of the 16 groups tested, positive results of R.salmoninarum isolation on media were obtained in 4 cases, and molecular-biological – in 27. The sensitivity of PCR was higher than the isolation of bacteria on SKDM with a significant difference of 17,12 according to the Fisher criterion at a significance level of 0,05 (5 %). Key words: aquaculture, fish diseases, bacterial kidney disease, polymerase chain reaction.
32 Domatskiy V.N., Sivkova E.I. Distribution of dicroceliosis of animals in the Russian Federation (review)
Dicroceliosis has been registered in many regions of the Russian Federation and abroad. In rare cases, there is an invasion in humans. The extent of invasion in cattle and sheep, depending on the region, ranges from 0,02 to 66 %, and in some farms it can reach 100 %. The intensity of invasion is also subject to significant fluctuations – from 27,3±3,4 to 587,6±38,2 copies, per animal, and in some cases reaches 5500 copies. Parasitization of dicrocelia in animals causes a decrease in productivity and weight gain in young animals. Key words: dicroceliosis, animals, humans, damage, spread, extensiveness and intensity of invasion.
36 Malakhova L.S., Omarov A.A., Surov A.I., Karpova E.D. The effectiveness of stimulation of hunting in sheep during the anestral period
Stimulation of sexual hunting in the anestral period is one of the key elements of assisted reproductive technologies in sheep breeding. This article presents the results on the effectiveness of stimulation of hunting and artificial insemination of sheep of the Manych Merino breed with frozen-thawed sperm in the anestral period. Hormonal treatment of sheep was quite effective, thereby ensuring the onset of hunting in 84,2 % of animals, with a fertility of 128,6 %. Fertilization according to the results of lambing from insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed sperm in the anestral period was 43,8 %. Key words: sheep, anestral period, progestogenic and gonadotropic drugs, artificial insemination, frozen-thawed sperm, sheep, growth intensity.
40 Korochkina E.A., Plemyashov K.V., Nikitin V.V. Morphological and functional state of the liver of Holstein black-and-white cows in the transit period
The transition time includes some process as pregnancy, parturation, the postpartum period and the beginning of a new lactation. This is an adaptation to a new process, which is the state of health of the animal, including the morphofunctional state of the liver. As identified factors such as starvation diet, parturition, lactation increased negative energy balance in the occurrence of dairy cows, which naturally leads to an uncontrolled increase in the rate of accumulation of body fat and increased accumulation of fatty acids in hepatocytes. The result of this process is a violation of the morphological and physiological integrity of the liver. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphofunctional state of the liver of Holsteinized Black-and-White breed cows during the transition period by histological assessment of the blood levels of some biochemical markers. The research was at one of the farms of the Leningrad region on Holsteinized Black-and-White breed cows with milk productivity for 305 days of lactation from 5625 to 10000 kg of milk per animal. A morphological and histological assessment of the liver was carried out, as well as an analysis of such biochemical parameters as total bilirubin, AST, ALT. It was established that the level of total bilirubin in cows during the transition period averages 5,02±1,6 µmol/l, ALT activity – 22,6±1,8 IU/l, AST activity – 119,4±11,4 IU/l. In 80 % of cases of cows in the transition period, perivascular and/or periportal weakly or moderately expressed mixed cell infiltration is observed in the tissues, represented by increased lymphocytes and macrophages, and to a lesser extent – neutrophils. There were no pathological changes in tissues in 20% of cows of the transition group. Thus, in the cows of the Holsteinized Black-and-White breed during the transition period (partially prevailing in half of the cases), phenomena are observed in the morphodiagnostics of liver disorders. However, to detect signs of NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids), beta-hydroxybutyrate, total triglycerides, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Key words: liver, histologic study, blood chemistry value, cows, transition period.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
46 Raitskaya V.I. Therapeutic properties of the drug Afluxide in gastrointestinal diseases of calves
The drug Afluxide, developed by Biorost LLC, when used in calves with gastrointestinal diseases at a dose of 50 g/head, 2 times a day for 3 days, helped to improve the morphological composition of their blood, reduce diarrheal symptoms, reduce the duration of treatment and increase safety (90,0 %). In the young animals of the control group, the disease proceeded in a severe form and for a longer time, and the survival rate was 80 %. At the beginning of the experiment, the content of hemoglobin in the blood of animals in the control and experimental groups was below the physiological norm by 24,3 and 21,6 %, respectively, calcium 14,3 and 9,5 %, respectively. A decrease in the amount of hemoglobin indicates a lack of iron involved in the synthesis of blood cells in the bone marrow and is a consequence of the activation of redox processes in the body. At the end of the experiment, the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood of calves of the experimental group did not approach the norm by 0,5 %. Key words: calves, Afluxide, diarrhea, hematology, blood biochemistry.
50 Matrosova L.E., Semenov E.I., Dombrovsky V.O., Ermolaeva O.K., Erohondina M.A. The Hepatoprotect bioadditive effect on liver profile of broiler chickens in experimental liver damage
This research was conducted to study the effect of the Hepatoprotect bioadditive based on milk thistle meal, succinic acid, bentonite, probiotic strain B. subtilis, vitamins A and E on liver enzymes and bile pigments blood level of broiler chickens with experimental liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride introduced once at a dose of 1 ml/kg of body weight. Levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyltransferases, and bilirubin were significantly increased in the toxic control group of birds, reflecting carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. The Hepatoprotect bioadditive showed a significant hepatoprotective by reducing the level of bilirubin and liver enzymes. Key words: carbon tetrachloride, chickens, bioadditive Hepatoprotect, liver.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
54 Tyurin V.G., Mysova G.A., Rodionova N.V., Biryukov K.N. Influence of environmental factors on the activity on the activity of hydrobiological cultures and sanitation of livestock effluents
Studied the problem of pollution of natural water bodies. It is important to search for methods and technological solutions that ensure the protection of water bodies from anthropogenic impact on the processes of biological treatment and sanitation. One of the promising directions in solving the problem of biological water purification is the study of natural self-purification factors with the aim of possible targeted stimulation of their action. Key words: pollution, reservoir, biological treatment, sanitation, self-purification.
57 Galnbek T.V., Komina A.K., Gorohov D.Yu., Potapova I.V., Kuleshov K.V., Kalinin A.G. Assessing the identity of LEK and TR cell lines during long-term cultivation
Cell cultures have got large distribution and application in various areas of biology and medicine for the study and solution of general and private problems of virology, oncology, biochemistry, biotechnology. Using of cell cultures require of comprehensive study of conformity of originally declared genetical and morphological characteristics. Main principle of grade of authenticity of cells is using of totality of methods, allowing to characterize morphological, culture, cytogenetics profile of cells. In this article are given result of study of stability of cell cultures LEK and TR during the process of long-term cultivation. Conducted researches established, that сultural and morphological properties of cell lines remain unchanged. STR analysis showed, in spite of hight similarity of studied samples profile, clear differences was detected on TGLA53 and TGLA126 STR-locuses. Also at infection by IRT, ND, DV-BS, EMS, EK, Vesicular stomatitis cell cultures LEK and TR have not lost their sensitivity to studying viruses. Key words: cell cultures, collections, sensitivity to viruses, STR-analysis.