CONTENTS №7-2022

3 Makarov V.V., Dinchenko O.I., Petrov A.K., Kulikov E.V., Ryzhova D.D. Chronic wasting disease in cervids in Europe

This advisory contains technical information on Chronic wasting disease of the cervids, an emerging prion infection in Western Europe. The paper also considers the epizootological features of diseases of this category. Modern points of view on the problem are discussed. Key words: prion diseases, epizootology, chronic wasting disease.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.03-09

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

10 Baryshnikov P.I., Novicov B.V. Epizootic process of viral infections of wild birds in the steppe area of the Altai Region

This paper discusses the blood serum test results to detect influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis and infectious bursal disease in wild birds in the steppe area of the Altai Region. Key words: viral infections, wild birds, infection rate, influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bursal disease, associative course.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.10-15

INFECTION DISEASE

16 Verkhovsky O.A., Moskvinа A.S., Mukhin A.N., Tsibesov V.V., Aliper T.I., Larichev V.F., Rakhmanina N.A. Clinical and diagnostic significance of the detection of antibodies to SARS-COV-2 in cats

The possibility of synchronous infection of cats with SARS-CoV-2 and FCoV, as well as the degree of antigenic relatedness of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses in the naturel conditions has been reported and discussed.   Comparative testing of sera from domestic cats for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and FCoV using ELISA and virus neutralization assays was shown that all FCoV-negative cats has negative results in RBD-ELISA, however, 30.8% samples of cats with antibodies to FCoV cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD. The results invited the conclusion that alpha- and beta-coronavirus spike proteins possess highly conservative epitopes causing cross-reactivity. In order to confirm the diagnosis and identify the pathogen’s etiology it is recommended to conduct parallel testing for SARS-CoV-2 and FCoV using serological and molecular diagnostic methods. Key  words: SARS-CoV-2, FCoV, RBD, ELISA, VN, antibodies, epitopes, infection. 
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.16-23

23 Naimanov A.Kh., Vangeli E.P., Tolstenko N.G., Myasoedov Yu.M. Diagnostic value of PCR in bovine paratuberculosis

The article presents a brief analysis of the literature data and our own research on the comparative testing of various diagnostic tests for bovine paratuberculosis. Due to the fact that none of the existing methods is sufficiently effective, at the present stage of the fight against this infection, it is necessary to use a complex of various diagnostic methods: epizootological, serological, allergic, bacteriological and molecular genetic. In the current Manual for the Diagnosis of Animal Paratuberculosis of  2001, polymerase chain reaction is not included in the complex of methods for diagnosing paratuberculosis. On the basis of the studies carried out, the authors recommend, in order to increase the efficiency of in vivo diagnosis of paratuberculosis, to include the PCR method in the complex of methods approved and used in veterinary practice as an express method for examining feces from animals suspected of infection. In addition, during bacteriological examination, pathological material from animals suspected of being infected with paratuberculosis and slaughtered animals, as well as cultures of slow-growing acid-resistant mycobacteria isolated from them, must be examined by PCR in order to identify and differentiate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from closely related NTMB. Key words: paratuberculosis, cattle, PCR method, complement fixation reaction, PPD tuberculin for birds, small intestine, feces, bacteriological method.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.23-28

28 Kosarev M.A., Nasibullin R.Yu., Safina G.M., Gabbasova A.K. Study of optimal conditions for submerged cultivation of Brucella abortus

Brucella abortus strain R was conducted by laboratory fermenter with use of semi-synthetic and synthetic culture media. The physicochemical parameters which necessary for the normal growth of Brucella in the laboratory fermenter were obtained (aeration and mixing, redox potential, pH). The role of the optimal ratio of all parameters of factors in the cultivation of Brucella, which determine the growth and activity of microorganisms was found out in the present results. Key words: nutrient medium, fermenter, cultivation, brucellosis, culture liquid, biomass.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.28-32

INVASIVE DISEASE

34 Davydova O.Е., Vasilevich F.I., Esaulova N.V. Toxocariasis of neglected cats in the suburbs of Moscow 

The article provides information about the epizootological features of the spread of toxocariasis in stray cats in the suburbs of Moscow, describes the most effective ways to study urban soils for contamination with eggs of Toxocara sp. The total contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara in 2 studied cities of the nearest suburbs was 40 %. In the city of Staraya Kupavna, it amounted to 43% of the number of samples studied, and in the city of Balashikha – 33,3%. When comparing three methods for studying soil for helminth eggs: the setback method, the Romanenko method and the D.A. Dolbina et al., it turned out that an effective way to detect the contamination of urban soils with helminth eggs is the settling method, which is not inferior in efficiency to the Romanenko method. Key words: toxocariasis, helminthiases of neglected cats, Toxocara cati, soil testing for helminth eggs.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.34-37

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY

38 Filatov A.V., Khlopitskiy V.P. Efficacy and uterotonizing effect of propranolol in complex medicinal products in animals with postpartum inflammatory diseases

We studied the effect of complex preparations of the series Endometramag® and Metramag®-15 containing propranolol hydrochloride when used to sows on the motility of their uterus, as well as the therapeutic effectiveness of these agents in various methods of administration to animals with postpartum inflammatory diseases. It was established that Metramag®-15 and Endometramag-Bio®, respectively, in intramuscular and intrauterine use to sows, activate the contractile function of the uterine myometrium. In addition, the preparations of this series show high therapeutic effectiveness in postpartum endometritis and metritis-mastitis-agalactia syndrome. Lactogenesis is restored in clinically recovered individuals, which is confirmed by the normalization of growth and the development of piglets, as well as their high safety. In the post-harvest period, sexual cyclicity is restored faster in the breeding stock with high efficiency of artificial insemination. Key words: propranolol, pig breeding, postpartum endometritis, metritis-mastitis-agalactia syndrome, uterine contractile activity, therapeutic effectiveness, reproduction.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.38-42

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE

44 Zhukov M.S., Alekhin Yu.N. Functional state of the heart in calves with varying degrees of severity of respiratory diseases

The purpose of the work is to study the functional state of the heart of calves with varying degrees of severity of respiratory diseases. On the basis of a comprehensive examination, 22 calves were selected, of which 4 were clinically healthy (control, group No. 1, n=4), and 18 goals. bronchopneumonia was diagnosed with mild (group No. 2, n=4), moderate (group No. 2, n=9) and severe (group No. 4, n=5) severity of the course of the disease. The condition of the animal and the severity of the course of pneumonia were assessed using clinical, instrumental and laboratory research methods. It has been established that in calves with a mild course of pneumonia, there is an increase in the contractile function of the myocardium and signs of moderate tachycardia appear. In the group of calves with an average course of the disease, in addition to tachycardia, an increase in the volume of the second tone by 28,4 and an increase in LVET by 29,5 % (p˂0,05) were recorded. In severe cases, there was also a low level of LVET (by 26,6 %), an increase in loudness (by 6,2 %) and a bifurcation of the second tone, as well as the appearance of an additional third tone, which indicates the development of pulmonary hypertension. At the same time, myocardial contractility decreased and signs of bradycardia appeared. An analysis of the blood composition showed that the content of the CIC in groups No. 3 and No. 4 significantly increased by 4.5 and 9,5 times, and the activity of AspAT exceeded the control values by 2,3 and 3,7 times, respectively. The study showed that the development of pneumonia is always accompanied by a violation of the functions of the heart, the form of manifestation of which depends on the severity of the course of the underlying disease. The progression of pneumonia is accompanied by the onset and intensification of heart failure, which clinically manifests itself initially as functional disorders, but then myocarditis develops, which in seriously ill patients occurs in the form of dysmetabolic cardiomyopathy. Key words: calves, respiratory diseases, tachycardia, bradycardia, pulmonary hypertension, cardiomyopathy.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.44-50

51 Dunyashev T.P., Romadina T.N., Tiurina D.G., Ilina L.A., Kuznetsov U.E. Effect of the probiotic Proforth® on the intestinal microbiome of dogs
The article presents the results of the effectiveness of the use of the multifunctional feed additive Profort in feeding dogs. The experience was carried out on dogs weighing 7 – 12 kg (n=6), which, together with the main diet, fed probiotic Profort® manufactured by BIOTROF LTD (St. Petersburg) in the amount of 0,05 g per head per day. The experience was 21 days. Samples of the intestinal contents of dogs were taken on 1, 7, 14 and 21 days to examine the microbial community by molecular genetic methods. The application of high-throughput sequencing methods to canine fecal samples revealed the peculiarities of the gastrointestinal microflora change, showed the prophylactic effect of the studied food additive on the animal body. Key words: dog, diet, microbiome, Profort®.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.51-54

56 Mineev A.K. Pathology of gonads in commercial fish species of the Saratov reservoir 

The results of a study of the histological state of gonads in males and females of three mass fish species of the Saratov reservoir, including one commercial bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758), are presented. Ten types of histopathologies were found. The excess of normal indicators of the occurrence of fish with certain types of gonad histopathologies in populations has been recorded, which is one of the signs of their disadvantage in the ecological conditions of the reservoir. Among the studied fish species, the number of individuals with gonad histopathologies reached high values, and the occurrence of all types of pathologies exceeded the value of their spontaneous formation (1 %). Certain types of disorders were recorded rarely or singly: deformation of the vitellogenic oocyte, connective tissue growths and pigmented neoplasms in the gonad, the presence of an oocyte in the testicular tissue and two nuclei in one oocyte. The diversity of the detected histopathologies of the gonads and the regular nature of the manifestation of these disorders in a significant part of the population is a possible consequence of the impact of anthropogenic factors. Key words: Saratov reservoir, commercial fish species, histopathology of gonads.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.56-60

ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY

61 Koichuev A.U., Saipulaev M.S., Gadzhimuradova Z.T. Production tests of the effectiveness of the disinfectant Dezon Vet

The article presents the results of a production test of a Dezon Vet product intended for disinfection of veterinary surveillance facilities. Disinfection was carried out by irrigation. Its quality was controlled by the isolation of E. coli and Staphylococcus bacteria from naturally contaminated surfaces in accordance with the guidelines "On the procedure for testing new disinfectants for veterinary practice" (approved by By the Main Department of Veterinary Medicine of the USSR Gosagroprom dated 01.01.1987) and "Rules for disinfection and disinfection of objects of state veterinary supervision" (2002).  For the isolation of E. coli, the medium of Coda and Endo agar were used, and Staphylococcus aureus – 6,5 % saline BCH and 8,5 % saline MPA. It was found that during the control of the release of E. coli, for the disinfection of smooth surfaces (tile, galvanized iron, stainless steel), it is necessary to use a 0,2 % solution of Dezon Vet at the rate of 0,5 l/m2 and exposure 1 hour, rough surfaces (concrete, wood, metlakh tile) – 0,3 % solution at the rate of 0,5 l/m2 and exposure 3 hours. To inactivate staphylococci on smooth surfaces, a 0,5 % solution of the drug should be used at the rate of 0,5 l/m2 and exposure for 3 hours, rough surfaces – 1,0 % solution at the rate of 0,5 l/m2 and exposure for 3 hours. Key words: disinfection, disinfection, irrigation, solution, concentration, consumption of disinfectants, exposure, test surfaces, test cultures.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.7.61-64

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CONTENTS №7-2022