3 Orlyankin B.G., Yuzhakov A.G., Krasnikov N.Yu., Aliper T.I. Rotaviruses of swine
Present-day data on porcine rotaviruses that cause acute enteritis in piglets during the suckling and nursery periods are presented. Of the ten known species of rotaviruses in mammals and birds, pigs are affected by rotaviruses of five species: RVA, RVB, RVC, RVE, and RVH. The issues of epizootology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, pathomorphology, diagnostics, immunity, and specific prevention of porcine rotaviruses are considered. Key words: porcine rotaviruses, distribution, clinical picture, diagnostics, specific prevention..
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
11 Teimurazov M.G., Tazina O.V., Abaimova A.A., Platonov M.E., Manin T.B., Ruzina A.V., Pankratov S.V. Bordetella avium and Bordetella hinzii isolated from chickens from different farms in the Russian Federation
Bordetella avium and Bordetella hinzii – the causative agents of bird bordetellosis were found in 15 out of 52 poultry farms from five areas of the Russian Federation. At the same time, the isolation of bordetella cultures among the number of birds amounted to only 3,5 %. Bordetella spp. monocultures were isolated only in single cases. Most often Bordetella spp. were isolated together with other bacteria, such as Avibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., Gallibacterium anatis, Enterococcus spp., Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Mycoplasma spp., i.e. in the form of a co‑infection. Interestingly, Bordetella spp. were isolated not only from infraorbital sinuses and tracheas but also from parenchymal organs and oviducts. Antibiotic susceptibility of the Bordetella isolates showed that more than 50 % of the strains were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat chickens. Two B. avium isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. During the bordetella infection modeling, it was found that the bacteria use aerosol transmission route to initiate the infection and cause a mild non-lethal respiratory disease, while causing significant loss of broiler body weight in comparison with the control (untreated) group. Key words: bordetella of poultry, model infection, antibiotic resistance.
18 Marinin L.I., Timofeev V.S., Mironova R.I., Titareva G.M., Tyurin E.A., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A. Characteristics of B. anthracis strains isolated during the outbreak of anthrax in Yamal in 2016
During an outbreak of anthrax in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in 2016, FBUN staff of the State Research Center PMB in the vicinity of the village of Yar-Sale took samples from the corpses of fallen deer, as well as soil and water samples. In the laboratory of anthrax microbiology, six strains of the anthrax pathogen were isolated from the samples taken. In addition, they studied strains isolated by VNIIVViM (Pokrov) employees from deer and a clinical isolate from a sick person - strain No. 12. Studies have shown that the isolates had an identical set of biological properties characteristic of typical virulent strains of the anthrax microbe. Molecular genetic studies of the isolated strains using canSNP-, MLVA-genotyping, genome-wide sequencing showed their identity. Studies suggest a common origin of the isolated strains and that the infection spread from one common source. The strains in their properties did not differ from the strains of the causative agent of anthrax, isolated in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District and studied by employees of the Stavropol Anti-Plague Institute, VNIIVViM and FSBI «48 CRI of the Ministry of Defense» of Russia. Key words: B. anthracis, anthrax, causative agent, soil, deer.
23 Larionova O.S., Matrenov I.S., Drevko Ya.B., Isaicheva L.A., Larionov S.V. Determination of antibiotic sensitivity of strains Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
The article presents the results of a study of the antibiotic sensitivity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field isolates to the most common antimicrobial drugs in veterinary practice. It is shown that the sensitivity of the pathogen changes over time. Most probably this is due to the expansion of the use of antimicrobial agents in conditions of intensive animal husbandry. The case of isolation of polyresistant strains of the causative agent of actinobacillosis pleuropneumonia of pigs was described for the first time in this research. Key words: actinobacillosis pleuropneumonia, pigs, antimicrobial agents, polyresistant strains.
28 Kovaikina V.M., Ezdakova I.Yu., Kapustina O.V., Valtsiferova S.V., Gulyukin A.M. Natural antibodies as an immunoreactivity marker and a predictor of broiler chicken survival
Natural antibodies (NAbs) are present in all species vertebrate serum and are predominantly of the IgM isotype. This article presents the study results of interaction IgM and IgY classes of Nabs with hemocyanin of sea mollusk haemolymph (KLH). The direct correlation of the circulating Nabs level by the developed indirect ELISA with survival and the immunoreactivity of the Cobb-500 cross broiler chickens underneath affect antigens of pathogenic E. coli and a live vaccine strain Mycoplasma synoviae was detected. The obtained data indicate an important role of serum NAbs at protective immunity forming. The analysis of IgM and IgY classes NAbs level can be used in poultry farming as an innovative immune biomarker of the broiler chickens of fast-growing crosses general resistance to infection. Key words: natural antibodies (NAbs), IgM, IgY, specific antibodies, hemocyanin (KLH) from the marine mollusk Megathura crenulata, broiler chickens, survival rate, innate immunity.
34 Shakarboev E.B., Turgunov S.N., Azimov D.A., The distribution of the nematode Ascaris suum Goese, 1782 among domestic pigs in Uzbekistan
We studied the prevalence of Ascaris suum among pigs in Fergana and Tashkent regions. During helminthological autopsy of 96 animals, A. suum was found in 37 (38,6 %) animals with an invasion intensity (II) of 3 – 35 ind. On the territory of the Fergana and Tashkent regions of the Ferghana Valley in the private sector, the infestation of domestic pigs with roundworms in the winter months was 34,8 – 42,1 % with an average AI of 15 – 26 ind. In spring and summer, the extensiveness of invasion (EI) was 21,7 – 27,2 %, respectively, with AI 8 – 12 specimens. and 20,6 – 24,4 % with AI – 5 – 10 copies. These indicators reached their minimum values in autumn – 8,5 – 16,9 % and 3 – 7 specimens. According to helminthocoprological studies in the private sector of Tashkent region, weaned piglets (up to 2 months old) are infected with this nematode by 41,6 %, young animals (4 – 6 months) – by 50 %, gilts (6 – 10 months) – by 37,5 % and adult pigs – by 16,8 %. Key words: helminth, ascariasis, extensiveness and intensity of invasion, age and seasonal dynamics, Uzbekistan.
38 Korochkina E.A., Finageev E.Y., Semenova V.S., Ivanovskaya M.M. On the question of the method for evaluation the morphology of ram spermatozoa
Evaluation of sperm is themanufacturers which include the determination of the content of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, the mobility of germ cells, as well as the assessment of the morphological structure of spermatozoa. Based on the studies carried out, it is possible to predict the fertilizing ability of sperm. The determination of the morphological and functional characteristics of the genetic material is of key importance . The choice of a technique for assessing the morphological structure of spermatozoa (according to Romanovskiy – Giemsa, Diff-Quick, using carbol-fuchsin and others), as well as the specific characteristics of the sperm of male producers, the information content of using the technique largely depends on the degree of its modification for a given animal species, as well as the choice of analysis of prepared samples. The purpose of the study is to study and modify methods for assessing the morphology of ram spermatozoa using the Diff-Quick rapid staining kit. The studies were carried out in the scientific and educational laboratory for animal embryo transplantation on the basis of the St. Petersburg State University of Veterinary Medicine. The semen of rams of the Romanov breed aged from 1 to 4 years was taken and studied. The total number of semen samples required was ten (n=10). To assess the morphology, the method of rapid differentiated staining Diakhim-Diff-Quick according to TU 9398-066-27428909 – 2012 using the Argus-CASA program according to TU 58.29.29-001-01099874 – 2018 and a Levenhuk MED Series light microscope upon detection of х1000 with oilimmersion. According to the results of the studies, the most informative method is the rapid ferritization of ram spermatozoa using the Diff-Quick kit and fixation and staining of the samples, equal to 7 minutes. It is also necessary to adapt the chosen methodology and types inherent in the existing software analysis of sperm quality assessment.Key words: ram spermatozoa, morphological evaluation, differential staining with the use of the Diff-Quick set.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
43 Isakova M.N., Lysova Ya.Yu., Khonina T.G. Development of new medicinal compositions based on bacteriocin-nisin, with subsequent evaluation of their antimicrobial activity
The article presents data justifying the choice of components for the development of medicinal compositions. The results of the synthesis of bacteriocin-nisin, silicon glycerohydrogels, boron bisglycerolates, and an assessment of their compatibility are presented. The antimicrobial activity of the developed compositions was studied. The developed compositions were light yellow solutions and included the following components: silicon glycerolates – 3,0 %, nizin – 0,3 %, distilled water – the rest (composition 1); silicon glycerolates – 3,0 %, boron bisglycerolates – 1,0 %, nizin – 0,3 %, distilled water – the rest (composition 2ni (10 wt.%). Silicon glycerolates were obtained by the reaction of transesterification of tetraethoxysilane with glycerin with the release of ethanol and the formation of a mixture of monomeric and oligomeric silicon glycerolates. Boron bisglycerolates were obtained by esterification of boric acid with glycerin, followed by the removal of water in the form of azeotrope with toluene. A study of the pharmaceutical compatibility of the components of the compositions according to IR spectroscopy data showed that nisin does not enter into chemical interaction with silicon and boron glycerolates. When studying antimicrobial activity, it was found that the developed compositions had a significant antimicrobial effect against various strains of microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium. However, it was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has resistance to the tested compositions. With respect to Escherichia coli and Salmonella abony, the studied compositions had intermediate sensitivity. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium showed high resistance to the components of the compositions. Thus, the conducted studies indicate the effectiveness of the developed compositions in relation to infectious diseases. Key words: medicinal compositions, nisin, silicon glycerolates, boron bisglycerolates, pharmaceutical compatibility, antimicrobial activity.