3 Orlyankin B.G. The origin and evolution of viruses
The present review summarizes up-to-date information on the origin and evolution of viruses and their role in genetic information exchange between different species. Key words: viruses, origin, evolution, gene transfer in the biosphere.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
12 Mnikova L.A., Sokolova N.A., Gorbatov A.V., Ishkova T.A., Loschinin M.N. Development and testing of an associated vaccine against rota-, coronavirone infection and escherichia diarrhea of newborn calves
An associated vaccine against rota-, coronavirus infection and escherichia diarrhea of newborn calves was developed and tested, based on the use of domestic strains of the rotavirus RM, coronavirus KL-2 and a suspension of K99, F41, Att25, antigens isolated from epizootic strains E. coli. Key words: rotaviruses, coronaviruses, escherichia coli, adhesins, vaccine, diarrhea, calves.
15 Adamov A.N. A practical view on respiratory pathology with participation of Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry
This article presents a production experiment conducted on one of the poultry farms in the central region, with the use of inactivated vaccine against M. synoviae (MS-NEV1 and MS-NEV2 stains) on broiler breeders. Based on the results of the experiment, it can be seen, that the main zootechnical indicators in vaccinated birds improve with each production cycle, and the offspring do not experience any complications related to the vaccine. Based on the data obtained, it was concluded, that it is necessary to vaccinate the parent broiler flocks with the inactivated vaccine against M. synoviae, since this allows to provide effective protection of the breeders and to prevent the transmission of the pathogen to the offspring. Key words: mycoplasmosis, vaccination, parental flock, broilers, Mycoplasma synoviae, inactivated vaccine.
19 Chalchenko A.B. Etiology and prevention of neonatal calf diarrhea
Diarrhea of infectious etiology is one of the main causes of massive calf death in the first 10 days of life. The mortality of the affected calves varies from 12 to 60%. Virulence of diarrheagenic viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi increases against the background of various unfavorable conditions of maintenance and feeding. Many of them enter the calves immediately after birth. Different viruses, incl. rota-, corona-, parvo- and reoviruses, are isolated from diseased newborn calves. Virus infections are complicated, as a rule, by bacterial infections. It’s difficult to determine the pathogenetic role of a particular agents released from diseased calves in the case of mixed infections. Key words: anaerobic enterotoxemia, calf clostridia, colibacteriosis, coronavirus, cow, diarrhea, rotavirus, vaccine.
22 Mukhin A.N., Raev S.A., Moskvina A.S., Yuzhakov A.G., Ostapchuk O.V., Nepoklonova I.V., Verkhovsky O.A., Aliper T.I. Аntigenic activity of the improved variant of the vaccine "Multifel-4" against panleukopenia, infectious rhinotracheitis, calicivirus infection and chlamydiosis of cats
The article presents the results of the study of the antigenic activity of the inactivated vaccine against panleukopenia, infectious rhinotracheitis, calicivirus infection and chlamydiosis of cats with a carbomer-based adjuvant. Key words: "Multifel-4", inactivated vaccine, feline panleukopenia, feline infectious rinotracheitis, feline calicivirus infection, feline chlamydiosis, antigenic activity, adjuvant, сarbomer.
28 Iskandarov M.I., Gulyukin M.I., Fedorov A.I., Gulyukin A.M., Iskandarova S.S., Albertyan M.P., Sleptsov E.S., Vinokurov N.V. The role of different Brucella species and biovars in epidemiology
The genus Brucella contains eleven different species. B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis are capable of causing abortion in natural hosts and are the cause of most cases of human brucellosis. The role of B. ovis and B. neotomae in the epidemiology of brucellosis did not proven. The causative agents of marine mammalian brucellosis, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, are pathogenic to people, but the likelihood of contact with them is not great. In view of the availability the publications on the epidemiological danger of dog brucellosis, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with museum strains of B. canis and 4 other Brucella species (B. melitensis, B. suis, B. ovis and B. neotomae) was carried out. Unlike the other mentioned Brucella species, B. neotoma and B. canis did not cause macroscopic changes in laboratory animals, and their infection index was the lowest (6 %). Thus, from two persistent dissociates cultures of brucellae, B. ovis, which considered to be harmless to humans, was significantly superior by virulent properties then B. canis. Key words: brucellosis, virulence, guinea pig, dog, epidemiological danger, B. canis.
32 Kachanova E.O., Safiullin R.T., Saleeva I.P. Eimeriosis in chickens-broilers of which are growing on the heated floor
Research-production experiment showed that there is a high extensiveness (EI) and the intensiveness (II) of eimeriosis invasion when broiler chickens are growing on the heated floor without the use of anticoccidia drugs. Chickens-broilers in 26 days age had marked the peak of the infestation, EI was 100 %, II – 52,5 thousand oocysts per 1 g of the litter. Despite the high degree of invasion, the mortality was not observed, indicating the high immune status of the chickens. When chickens are grown on the heated floor for several weeks after birth, the residual yolk completely dissolve, which contributes to the rapid start of growth and weight gain broiler chickens, as well as the better formation of immunity. Due to the high immune status, chickens are able to tolerate greater intensity of invasion with its insignificant clinical manifestation. Key words: broiler chickens, eimeriosis, extensiveness, intensiveness, heated floor.
35 Abramov V.E., Kolyachkina S.V., Kashkovskaya L.M. Therapy of chronic endometritis of cows
The high (96 %) therapeutic effectiveness of Mitrack in the treatment of subclinical endometritis in cows. The treatment of Mitrek reduces the service-period and improves the fertility of cows. In addition, the drug has no restrictions on milk, this makes it a priority for use in the dairy herd. Key words: endometritis, cattle, Mitrek, сefapirin, efficiency, therapy, recovery.
39 Balbutskaya A.A., Skvortsov V.N., Belimova S.S. Antimicrobial resistance of isolates causing clinical mastitis in cows
The study evaluates the isolation frequency of mastitis pathogens cultured from milk samples from dairy cow in several regions of Russia. 35 samples were collected from diseased animals and examined by conventional methods. The most frequently identified bacterium according phenotypic tests was Staphylococcus aureus (28,2 %), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (18%), Enterococcus spp. (12,8 %), Streptococcus spp. (12,8 %), Escherichia coli (12,8 %) and single isolates of other microorganisms. For all isolated bacteria (n=39) was defined a drug resistance profile (36 antibiotics of different groups). From 10,7 % to 50 % of isolates of gram-positive microorganisms were resistant to penicillins, from 17,8 % to 57,1 % to cephalosporins, 28,6 – 35,7 % to aminoglycosides, 39,3 % to lincosamides, 35,7 % to furozolidone, 32,1 % to tylosin. There was revealed the high resistance level among gram-negative microorganisms to tylosin (100 % resistant isolates), cefazolin (88,9 %), cefoxitin (55,6 %) and erythromycin (44,4 %). The overall prevalence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in this study was 92,3 %. Thus, the selection of the antibacterial drug for the treatment of intramammary infections of cows should be based on antibiotic susceptibility testing. Key words: antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, disk diffusion test, сow, mastitis, milk.
45 Stekolnikov A.A., Reshetnyak V.V., Burdeyniy V.V. Wound healing activity of immunomodulatory of natural and synthetic origin
The literature data on the use of immunomodulators in the system of complex therapy for traumas of various origins are present in the article. On the example of cutaneous muscle wounds of an aseptic nature in two series of experiments on white mice the effectiveness of wound healing of three immunomodulators is shown, the first of which is RV-1 from natural compounds group on an alcoholic basis, which is a complex balanced composition of biologically active substances, and the second and third ones – RV-2 and RV-3 – are analogues of thymus preparations (hormones) of synthetic origin. In the first series of experiments it was established that the wound-healing effect of immunomodulators was ambiguous. With local and oral administration of the RV-1 preparation, the healing process of the wound proceeded more intensively during the first 10 days compared to the control group and groups of animals treated with intramuscular synthetic dipeptides (3rd and 4th experimental groups). In the latter case, on the 3rd and 5th days, inhibition of wound healing was detected, where the reduction in the wound area percentage was significantly lower than in the control group and in the 1st and 2nd experimental ones. A sharp increase in the therapeutic effect in the groups was recorded a little later, starting from the seventh day. In the second series of experiments, the high effectiveness of the wound healing effect of the shortened course was estimated with local application of the RV-1 preparation against the background of more pronounced violations of the immune status of animals with wounds that 11.8 times exceed the wound defects in the first variant. Consequently, the wound healing process was reduced by 2,26 days (from 20,76±0,76 to 18,5±0,43 days). Key words: biologically active agents, healing effect, immunomodulators, immunocorrection, synthetic peptides, white mice, wound.
50 Rafikova E.R., Nosdreen G.A. Effect of the microbiological drug Vetom 21.77 on biochemical parameters of blood in broiler chickens
There were studied the effect of microbiological drug Vetom 21.77, prepared from nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans, on the blood biochemical parameters of the Hubbard F15 cross broiler chickens. The drug was administered to experimental groups of birds orally during 7 days once daily in doses of 2, 5, 50 and 300 μl/kg of body weight. Biochemical parameters of broilers blood remained within normal ranges during the whole period of observations. By the end of the experiment the content in serum of the total protein and its ratio with the urea concentration significantly increased in experimental groups in comparison with the control one, which did not receive the drug. The negative effect of the drug on the clinical state and biochemical indicators of broiler blood were not registered. Key words: biochemical indicators, broilers, Duddingtonia flagrans, Vetom 21.77.
54 Drozdova L.I., Timina L.I., Semenikhina N.M. The effect of probiotic Biosporin on functional activity of lymphocytes in the blood of white mice at different types of chronic stress
During the experiment, was modeled stress by different methods about laboratory mice and was studied the functional activity of lymphocytes in this condition and after correction of the probiotic Biosporin. Key words: immobilized stress, Porsolt’s test, immune system, rosette test lymphocytes.
58 Lozovoy D.A., Doronin М.I., Starikov V.А., Guseva M.N., Michalishin D.V., Timina А.M., Borisov А.V. Validation of reverse transcriptase RT-PCR for determining the concentration of 146S particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the raw material for vaccines
The article describes the process of validation the method for determining the concentration of 146S particles (С146Ѕ) of FMD virus in raw material for the vaccine in the reverse transcriptase RT-PCR on the basis of the set value of the threshold cycle of amplification Ct with the use of a regression model С146Ѕ = (-1 : 4,155)Ct + 7,285. There were determined the main validation characteristics of the method: specificity, limit of detection and quantitative determination, linearity, accuracy and precision, absolute and relative indicators of variation. The results of validation of the method corresponds the eligibility criteria. Key words: the foot-and-mouth disease virus, the concentration of 146S particles, validation, real-time RT-PCR, the threshold cycle.