3 Orlyankin B.G. The role and place of viruses in the biosphere
The review summarises up-to-date knowledge on the origin and taxonomy of viruses. Their genetic diversity is described, as well as their distribution throughout the biosphere and their role in the evolution of life on Earth. Key words: viruses, origin, biosphere, gene transfer, evolution.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
9 Arakelyan P.K., Ilin E.N., Khristenko N.V., Dimova A.S., Dimov S.K., Yanchenko T.A. Rational scheme for the relief of brucellosis infection in cattle
A rational scheme for the relief of brucellosis infection in cattle has been developed, providing for conjunctival immunization of animals with a vaccine from strain 19, with preliminary intramuscular administration 8 – 12 days before immunization with the antibacterial drug Nitox-200 in a volume of 1 ml per 10 kg of live weight, as well as the following systematic post-vaccination studies with slaughter of a positive response until a negative result is obtained. Key words: cattle, brucellosis infection, a rational scheme of relief, Nitox-200, vaccine from strain B. abortus 19, post-vaccination diagnosis.
12 Тselueva N.I., Gulyukin A.M. Review of the epizootic situation of rabies in the Smolensk region
The paper presents an analysis of the epizootic situation of animal rabies in the Smolensk region. Key words: rabies, foxes, wild, domestic animals, vaccination, epizootic situation.
15 Mikhaleva T.V., Bespalova T.Yu., Dresvyannikova S.G., Dzhailidi G.A. Practical issues of sampling for laboratory diagnostics of African swine fever
The article covers practical issues of sampling and transportation of biological/pathological material in african swine fever, taking into account the features of modern diagnostic methods. Key words: animal infectious diseases, african swine fever, sample collection, transportation, bio (pathological) material.
19 Glotova T.I., Koteneva S.V., Nefedchenko A.V., Glotov A.G. Frequency of isolation of bacteria of the genus Salmonella from cattle on big dairy farms
Data on the frequency of isolation of bacteria of the genus Salmonella from cattle of various age and gender groups during outbreaks of infectious diseases in large dairy farms of Siberia are presented. The circulation of several species of bacteria was established: S. dublin, S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, Salmonella spp (untypable), the isolation rate of which averaged 14,03 %. All isolated cultures of bacteria of the genus Salmonella were pathogenic for outbred white mice. The main species circulating among highly productive cattle in the dairy farms in Siberia was Salmonella dublin. Cultures of bacteria belonging to the species S. dublin were more often isolated from samples of biomaterial from calves (14,4 %) and aborted fetuses (9,4 %). Less commonly from stillborn calves (1,9 %) and cows (2,4 %). Infection was more likely to occur in a monovariant, and established associations of bacteria with viruses were relatively rare. In such cases, the presence of two pathogens of different species in animals simultaneously can enhance the severity of the pathological process during respiratory and gynecological pathologies of animals due to their synergistic interaction with each other. In practice, it is necessary to take into account the similarity of clinical and pathological signs of salmonellosis and viral diseases and to conduct differential diagnosis of diseases. Key words: cattle, dairy farms, salmonellosis, bacteria, Salmonella Dublin, viruses, frequency of isolation.
24 Baratov M.O., Sakidibirov O.P. Cattle tuberculosis in Dagestan Republic: problems and prospects
Indicators of the epizootic situation on bovine tuberculosis in Dagestan Republic are not objective and do not reflect the true situation. On the background of high incidence of tuberculosis (in some areas more than 78 rerjont per 100 thousand population) the Republic is safe on animal tuberculosis. The changes that have taken place in the socio-economic structure, in particular, the transfer of animals, including those with tuberculosis, in private hands, may also be partly related to the "well-being" of the Republic since 2000. There was a significant increase in the response to tuberculin in the spring and autumn and a noticeable decrease in the stall period (november, december, january, february). Similar results were obtained in the study of animals in a poor tuberculosis farm. The specificity of reactions in well-off farms is confirmed by the results of pathoanatomic studies. The specific nature of the detected animal sensitization to tuberculin and the need to differentiate tuberculin reactions in routine studies were established. Key words: tuberculosis, cattle, sensitization, tuberculin, specificity, epizootic situation.
29 Sibgatullova A.K., Vlasov M.E., Lunina D.A. Spatial-temporal characteristics of the results of genotyping of the I73R/I329L adjacent region of ASF virus isolates circulating in the territory of the Russian Federation
When studying the evolutionary dynamics of the ASF virus, the intergenic region I73R/I329L is of great interest. Identification of the nucleotide sequence located between these genes makes it possible to carry out a comparative analysis of ASF virus isolates isolated from different regions in different years, and to reveal the spatio-temporal patterns of its circulation in the Russian Federation. Key words: african swine fever, Russian Federation, isolates, insertions, intergenic region, marker genes, clusters, cluster analysis.
33 Egorova T.P., Arshba I.M., Demerchyan A.V. Protozoal-bacterial associations in the intestine of rhesus monkeys
The results of investigation of enterobacterial associations and protozoal invasions in intestinal microbiocenosis of monkeys are presented. Protozoal invasions includes Balantidium coli, Lamblia intestinalis and Blastocystis sp., having been isolated in a form of mono-, as well as polyinvasions. It was established that the presence of protozoal invasions is followed by the expanding the range of microorganism species, and along with normal microbiota complex bacterial associations’ of opportunistic and pathogenic agents are formed. The number of components in these associations varied in the range of 2 – 4, with a dominant species to be Escherichia coli bacteria. Key words: monkeys, intestinal pathology, microbiocenosis, associations, opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria.
36 Sizov D.A., Sizov A.A., Efremova E.A., Donchenko N.A., Kiselev O.S. Creation of an experimental ELISA for the diagnosis of carnivorous ophistorchosis using thermostable antigens Opistorchis felineus and its laboratory testing
The possibility of using O. felineus thermostable proteins as an antigen in creating a laboratory model of an enzyme immunoenzyme diagnostic test system that reveals class G immunoglobulins specific to O. felineus in the blood of carnivores was investigated. Examination of the effectiveness of the created model of ELISA in laboratory conditions showed its high diagnostic effectiveness for determining O. felineus-specific immunoglobulins of class G in feline blood serum. Key words: opisthorchosis, ELISA, diagnostic effectiveness.
41 Parkhomenko Yu.S., Manzhurina O.A., Perepelkina I.S., Semenova E.V., Rozhkova I.N., Kopytina K.O. The study of the sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from uterine-vaginal lavages of sows with endometritis and ejaculate of breeding boars to antimicrobial drugs
The article presents the results of studies of 204 samples of uterine-vaginal lavages of sows with endometritis and 126 samples of ejaculate from breeding boars from the farms of the Central Black Earth region. Contamination of the reproductive organs of sows by microorganisms of Enterobacteriaceae family was 80,9 %, native semen – 87,5 % of cases. The sensitivity of the isolated enterobacteriaceae cultures to 16 antimicrobial drugs from 11 pharmacological groups was studied. On average, the sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae cultures isolated from uterine-vaginal lavages and ejaculate to amoxicillin was 24,2 and 15,8%, benzylpenicillin1 – 5,2 and 1,8 %, gentamicin – 24,8 and 29,8 %. kanamycin – 0,6 and 2,6 %, neomycin – 33,9 and 37,7 %, streptomycin – 1,2 and 4,4 %, polymyxin M – 29,7 and 16,7 %, doxycycline – 18,8 and 8,8 %, furazolidone – 35,8 and 22,8 %, norfloxacin – 35,2 and 73,7 %, enrofloxacin – 36,9 and 74,6 %, tylosin – 1,9 and 1,7 %, rifampicin – 23,1 and 10,5 %, chloramphenicol – 43,6 and 32,5 %, novobiocin – 10,9 and 7,9 %, lincomycin – 1,2 and 1,7 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the isolated cultures to antimicrobial drugs was low; more than 30 % was registered only for three drugs – chloramphenicol, norfloxacin and enrofloxacin. The greatest resistance was registered to tylosin, lincomycin, streptomycin and kanamycin, benzylpenicillin, novobiocin. The high percentage of participation of microorganisms of Enterobacteriaceae family in the reproductive pathology of sows and microbial contamination of the native semen of breeding boars, as well as their high resistance to antibacterial agents, indicate the need for regular monitoring of the efficacy of antibiotics used against Enterobacteriaceae circulating on pig breeding farms. Key words: Enterobacteriaceae, sows, ejaculate of boars, antibiotic resistance.
46 Chistiakova I.V., Kuzmina T.I., Li N.G. The effect of hemolymph of the arctic butterfly Pieris rapae L. on extracorporal maturation competence of Sus scrofa domesticus oocyte-cumulus complexes
The search for effective modulators of oocyte quality and perspective reagents determining the cryoresistance is of great practical importance in the area of increasing of efficiency of artificial reproduction of valuable breeds of farm animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemolymph of the Arctic butterfly Pieris rapae L. on the morphology and chromatin status of Sus scrofa domesticus oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) during in vitro maturation. Porcine OCC (Landras breed, age 6 – 8 months) were matured at a temperature of 38,5 0C, in an atmosphere with 5 % CO2 for 22 hours in following experimental media: control group (medium) – medium NCSU-23 + 10% bovine serum + 10 μl of human chorionic gonadotropin; experimental group 1 – medium NCSU-23 + 1% hemolymph; experimental group 2 – medium NCSU-23 + 2,5 % hemolymph. The assessment of chromatin status of oocytes and cumulus cells was carried out using Tarkovsky method. When culture medium was supplemented with 2,5 % hemolymph, 87 % of oocytes resumed mesosis after 22 hours, while in the control group and first experimental group only 67 % and 77 % of cells continued their maturation, respectively (P<0,05). At the same time, a sharp decrease in the proportion of oocytes with degenerated chromatin was observed in the group of cells which were cultured with 2,5 % hemolymph (13 % versus 37 % in the control; P<0,05). When analyzing the morphology (degree of expansion) of somatic follicular cells (cumulus cells), there were no significant differences in the degree of expansion between the experimental groups, however, the level of cumulus cells with degenerated chromatin was significantly lower in the experimental groups than in the control group (40 % and 38 % versus 58 %; P<0,01). Key words: hemolymph, oocyte-cumulus complexes, maturation, Sus scrofa domesticus.
51 Fisenko N.V. Healthyvit for the treatment and prevention of hypovitaminosis in farm animals
In the article, the author examines the issues of hypoavitaminosis of calves, and gives clinical signs of a lack of a particular vitamin. As the prevention and treatment of offers to use the domestic multivitamin drug Healthyvit. Key words: avitaminosis, animals, vitamins.
53 Rudenko A.A., Vatnikov Yu.A., Sotnikova E.D., Rudenko P.A. Evaluation of linear echocardiographic parameters for endocardiosis of atrioventricular heart valves in dogs
Based on the study of changes in linear echocardiographic parameters in dogs with mitral and tricuspid valve endocardiosis, compared with clinically healthy animals, a significant increase in the size of the left atrium, end-diastolic and end-systolic sizes of the right and left ventricles was established. The dynamics of changes in the linear dimensions of echocardiographic parameters in patients with endocardiosis of atrioventricular heart valves in dogs significantly correlates with the functional class of chronic heart failure syndrome. Key words: dogs, echocardiography, endocardiosis of atrioventricular heart valves, chronic heart failure.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
60 Vyayzenen G.N., Dautov R.R., Vyayzenen A.G., Barashkov A.E., Prodanov N.S., Kusorov I.O., Danilenko V.M. Effect of feed additives on the productivity of bull calves
The results of wholesale on the use of waste of vegetable crops and sunflower when fattening gobies of the black-and-white breed are given. Six groups of uncastrated bulls were formed: control, I experienced, II experienced, III experienced, IV experienced and V experienced (on the principle of analogous groups, taking into account age and body weight and origin). The control animals were fed 11,0 kg of hay of cereal perennial grasses from the plots without entering the soil with calcium carbonate (KKS), and all experimental groups were fed 11,0 kg of hay with entering into the soil KKS. All gobies (control and experimental groups) were given 17,2 kg of silage from cereal perennial grasses and 3,65 kg of mixed feed and 9,5 kg of brewer's grain, 80 g of fodder chalk each. The gobies of the experimental groups were given various wastes of vegetable crops and sunflower (at 30 g/head/day): I experienced – did not feed them, II experienced – pepper stalks, III experimental – sunflower stalks, IV experimental — cucumber stalks, V experimental – stalks tomatoes (in the form of flour). The live weight of bulls when removed from fattening for the control group is 297,0±0,19 kg, the experienced ones – from 304,6±0,12 kg (hay with KKS and without feed additives) to 317,7±0,24 kg ( 114,7 %, tomato stalks). Average daily gains in live weight are from 801±14,6 g (hay with CCR) to 874±16,7 (tomato stalks, P<0,001) versus 762±16,4 g in the gobies of the control group. Cultivation and fattening duration is 170 days. Antioxidant and sorption properties of feed additives are reflected. Plant stems contributed to the reduction of heavy metals in meat (in total) when using cucumbers and tomatoes. The stems of vegetable crops and sunflower have high antioxidant and sorption properties. Tomato stems contain pigment, a biologically active additive (BAA) – Lycopene, and is an isomer of beta-carotene-carotene-provitamin A. According to its characteristics and abilities, it binds free radical particles; as a result, lycopene is 7 – 8 times more active than vitamin E and 3 times more beta-carotene, known antioxidants in vegetables. Lycopene in the composition of tomato stalk flour blocks the processes of lipid oxidation in the body, significantly activates the release of heavy metals through the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, and reduces their deposition in meat, skeleton and blood. A Lycopene stalk of tomatoes is involved in the redistribution of heavy metals in the organs and tissues of gobies. Key words: stems of vegetable crops and sunflower waste, gobies, fattening, heavy metals.