3 Kombarova T.I., Marinin L.I., Tjurin E.A., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A. Features of anthrax in farm animals
Based on the literature and the results of the authors' own observations, descriptions of the features of the manifestation of anthrax in different species of farm animals – sheep, cattle, horses, deer and swine are given. The analysis showed that the manifestations of infection in animals are different: in sheep, as a rule, a lightning-fast course, in cattle, horses and deer – an acute course of the disease, in swine – a chronic course. The leading sign of the disease is the development of the septic process and the formation of carbuncles on the skin. Key words: anthrax, animals, sheep, cattle, horses, deer, swine.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
9 Arakelyan P.K., Khristenko N.V., Gayvoronskaya Yu.E., Tregubov A.N., Vergun A.A., Dimova A.S., Dimov S.K., Yanchenko T.A. Evaluation of epizootic welfare for brucellosis of cattle herds in conditions of using live weakly agglutinogenic vaccines
The prophylactic use of live low-agglutinogenic vaccines from B. abortus strains 82 and 75/79-AB in cattle can create problems associated with post-vaccination response, requiring objective differentiation from post-infectious ones. Such differentiation is possible, but it requires investment of time and money. In this regard, it is relevant to substantiate the possibility of refusing to vaccinate animals against brucellosis, taking into account objective evidence of the absence of epizootic threats in a particular farm. In the presence of epizootic threats, prophylactic immunization of animals against brucellosis remains necessary. In such cases, it is possible to minimize the costs associated with post-vaccination differential diagnosis in two ways: the use of live low-agglutinogenic vaccines according to the instructions for their use with the maximum observance of the principle of uniformity in the formation, re-formation and movement of herds and groups by sex, age, immune and epizootic background; an alternative use of a live vaccine from the B. abortus 19 strain with stable S-antigenic properties by the conjunctival method in a 10-fold reduced dose compared to the traditional subcutaneous one, which maximizes the avoidance of post-vaccination seropositivity and ensures reliable immunity. Key words: cattle, brucellosis, epizootic threats, specific prophylaxis, manufacturability, post-vaccination differential diagnosis.
14 Engashev S.V., Filimonov D.N., Lesnichenko I.Yu., Kolesnichenko I.S. Rational antibiotic therapy in poultry farming
The article presents data on the species composition of microorganisms isolated from pathological material at closed-type poultry enterprises (poultry farms) located on the territory of the Russian Federation for the period of 2018 and 2020 with further analysis of sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs. The main attention is paid to the choice of a medicinal product for veterinary use in order to form rational antibacterial therapy and limit the spread of strains with antimicrobial resistance, which is of decisive importance in the conduct of therapeutic and therapeutic-prophylactic measures. The results obtained constitute a priority direction for this study and served as the basis for setting goals and forming the tasks of this work. Key words: antibiotic therapy, poultry farming, sensitivity, resistance, pathogens.
18 Nefedchenko A.V., Koteneva S.V., Glotova T.I., Glotov A.G. The role of bovine coronavirus in the etiology of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases of calfs in big dairy farms
The results of studying the frequency of detection of bovine coronavirus in the organs of calves with various clinical syndromes and the relationship between the presence of the agent in the body of animals and other pathogens of viral and bacterial nature using real-time PCR are presented. Molecular and bacteriological methods were used to study 1508 samples of biomaterial from 116 calves aged from 10 days to 6 months. BCoV was detected in 16,3 % of biomaterial samples from calves with diarrhea and 9,9 % of samples with respiratory diseases. Simultaneously with the coronavirus, 7 pathogens of various taxonomic classes were identified in the organs of calves with signs of enteritis, and in the organs of animals with respiratory pathology – 8. Using the Pearson criterion, reliable associations and interrelation of the presence of coronavirus with the presence of rotavirus, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in the organs and tissues of sick calves were revealed which confirms its role in the etiology of mixed infections of the gastrointestinal tract. The likelihood of the relationship of coronavirus with bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpesvirus type 4, clostridia and streptococci is low and statistically insignificant. In respiratory diseases of calves, the relationship of coronavirus with pathogens of the "respiratory complex" (IBR virus, BVD viruses, BRSV, PI-3, herpes simplex virus type 4 and streptococci) has not been established and is not statistically significant (p>0,05). P. multocida and M. haemolytica (Pearson's coefficient 0,388 – 0,361, p <0.05) were detected simultaneously with cattle coronavirus significantly more often. The obtained data emphasize the role of coronavirus as a monoagent or just a co-infection agent in respiratory diseases of calves. Key words: cattle, calves, coronavirus, real-time PCR, etiology, synergism, associations of pathogens.
24 Baratov M.O., Naimanov A.Kh. Problems of detecting of reactive animals in allergic tests on tuberculosis
The work was carried out in order to establish a connection between the manifestation of nonspecific allergic reactions to tuberculin and the identification of cows with actinomycosis. The study was carried out in 7 tuberculosis-free farms, on 3473 head s of cattle. The results of studies with a high degree of reliability (P <005) indicated that there was no relationship between the manifestation of nonspecific reactions to tuberculin with the detection of actinomycotic lesions in those who react and do not react to the intradermal administration of PPD-tuberculin for mammals. Key words: tuberculosis, actinomycosis, mycobacteria, sensitization, nonspecific reactions, diagnostics, tuberculin.
28 Balyshev V.M., Vlasov M.E. Pathogenicity of African swine fever virus isolated from wild boar with consecutive passages on pig
The article presents the results of two strains of ASFV study, isolated from wild boars with four consecutive contact passages on pigs. It is shown that strains Zavidovo-2012and Vladimir-Vyazniki/2017, isolated in Tver and Vladimir regions of Central Federal District with the 5-year interval, have comparable pathogenic properties. They cause pig deaths with acute forms of the disease. The most pronounced clinical signs of ASF and pathological anatomical changes were observed in pigs infected with Zavidovo-2012 strain that first caused outbreaks in Federal Central District. The data on the duration of ASF virus isolation after infection from blood, saliva, and urine of experimental pigs are presented. The reasons for the rapid decline in the pathogenicity of the virus, in the ASF outbreak in the Iberian Peninsula in 1957 – 1962 as well as in Brazil, Dominican Republic and Haiti, are discussed in comparison with the studied strains. Key words: African swine fever, domestic pigs, infection, wild boars, contact passages, pathogenicity, strains.
33 Lebedev A.A.,Vitomskova E.A., Ginter E.V. Pathogens of diphyllobotriosis and anisakidosis transmitted through fish to humans and animals in open reservoirs of the Far North-East of Russia
In the Far North-East of Russia, including the Magadan region, large-scale targeted ichthyoparasitological studies aimed at clarifying the epidemiological and epizootological significance of helminthozooanthroponosis pathogens transmitted through marine commercial fish are not currently being conducted. In the Northern Sea of Okhotsk, endemic species of helminths are found in anadromous Pacific salmon and smelt fish: plerocercoids of cestodes Diphyllobothrium luxi (klebanovskii) and Diphyllobothrium sobolevi. In addition, the highest rates of invasion of marine fish by ansakid larvae are observed in anadromous salmon and Pacific herring. The foregoing determined the goal, which was to determine the most epidemiologically and epizootic significant fish species in relation to pathogens (helminthes) transmitted from fish to people and animals. The tasks were expressed in the study of the species composition of helminths, the degree of infestation of all species of commercial fish – representatives of the marine fauna, the localization of helminths in the body of the fish, the presentation of ichthyoparasitological monitoring. 9 species of sea fish were studied: pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, saffron cod Eleginus gracilis, flounder Acanthopsetta nadeshnyi, flounder Platichthys stellatus, smelt Osmerus mordax dentex in the amount of 277 individuals caught in the north part of the Sea of Okhotsk in the spring-summer period of 2021, and also the localization of helminth larvae in the body of the fish and the degree of their invasion were studied. As a result of the conducted studies, it was concluded that anadromous Pacific salmon, smelt and flounder fish are of the greatest epidemiological and epizootic significance due to the localization of diphyllobothriid and anisakid larvae in the muscles as the most consumed part of the fish body for food and fish processing. Key words: the northern part of the Okhotsk Sea basin, marine fish, diphyllobotriosis, anisakidosis, diphyllobothriidae plerocercoids, anisakid larvae, extent of invasion, intensity of invasion.
39 Poryvaeva A.P., Starikov N.M., Belousov A.I. Influence of the pharmacological composition butaphosphane+cyanocobalamine on metabolic processes in productive animals
The effectiveness of the use of two drugs based on the pharmacological composition butaphosphane+cyanocobalamin for the prevention and correction of metabolic disorders in highly productive cows (n=36) under the conditions of scientific and production experience was studied. We studied the biochemical parameters of protein, lipid and mineral metabolism in cows before the use of drugs (225±5 days of gestation) and in the postpartum period (18 – 20 days). It has been established that the use of drugs based on the pharmacological composition butaphosphane+cyanocobalamin to highly productive cows during the dry period has a positive effect on the development of metabolic processes after childbirth. In animals of the experimental groups, the deficiency of protein components in the postpartum period is diagnosed in less than 10 % of cases (in the control group – 18 %). The number of individuals with an increased level of urea in the experimental groups ranges from 20 % to 36 %, in the control group – 54 %. The pathology of the hepato-biliary system in animals receiving the study a drug was diagnosed 2 times less often than in animals of the control group. Key words: metabolic disorders, biochemical blood test, metabolism, highly productive cows, pregnancy, postpartum period.
45 Voronova M.O., Vatnikov Yu.A., Kulikov E.V Clinical comparison of three methods of paravertebral brachial plexus in surgery blockade in dogs
In this study, we compared three methods of cervical paravertebral block on the forearm in dogs who underwent shoulder and elbow joint surgery. 24 dogs were randomly divided into three groups: group A was blockaded according to anatomical landmarks by the blind method, group H was blockaded under the control of a electroneurostimulator; group C was blockaded under ultrasound control. In each case, a 0,75 % solution of ropivacaine at a dose of 2 mg/kg was used. The success of the blockade was evaluated by the pinch method and monitoring of hemodynamic parameters and vital functions intraoperatively. The success of the blockade was regarded as a complete blockade, incomplete, no blockade. With an increase in heart rate by 20 %, an increase in the frequency and depth of breathing of the subjects, an intravenous fentanyl in doses 2 – 5 mkg/kg was administered. As a result of our research, we found that the method of blockade by anatomical landmarks is not effective: 50 % developed an incomplete blockade, 50 % of the blockade was impossible due to the inability to determine anatomical landmarks. The total blockade with the method using a neurostimulator was 62,5 % (n=5), in other animals the blockade was also impossible due to the inability to determine the anatomical landmarks C6 – C7. When we using the method under the control of ultrasound contor, the blockade was carried out by all animals. The success of the development of a complete block was 75 % (n=6), in other animals of this group, a partial block was noted. Key words: brachial plexus, forearm, regional anesthesia, nerve neurostimulation, ultrasound visualization of the nerves of the dog, paravertebral blockade.
51 Iliesh V.D., Makarova I.A. Comparison of pathomorphological changes in dogs and cats the treatment of breast adenocarcinoma
The article is devoted to changes in organs and tissues in dogs and cats during the use of postoperative chemotherapy with the drug Doxorubicin and the surgical method of treatment. A macroscopic description of organs, tumors and metastases was made, and their histrostructure was described in detail. Comparison of changes with different methods of treatment is carried out. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the use of the drug Doxorubicin in postoperative chemotherapy is advisable with supportive therapy aimed at maintaining the functions of the liver and cardiovascular system. A surgical method of treatment without further chemotherapy contributes to the development of a metastatic process in the body. Key words: adenocarcinoma of the breast, unilateral mastectomy, chemotherapy, Doxorubicin, metastases, parenchymal organs.
56 Bachinskaya V.M., Petrova Yu.V., Gonchar D.V. Influence protein hydrolysates on the chemical composition and energy value of rabbit meat
The article presents materials on the use of protein hydrolysates of plant origin Abiopeptide, Ferropeptide and Abiotonic in rabbit breeding, as well as the results of studying the organoleptic parameters and chemical composition of rabbit meat with the calculation of nutritional and energy value. The object of the study was the New Zealand rabbits White breed, at the beginning of the experiment, their age was 45 days. The experiment was carried out based on industrial rabbit farm the company LLC "Lidan", located in the village of Bunkova, Istra district, Moscow region. The experiment involved 4 groups of rabbits, 10 animals each. The rabbits of the first group were given the feed additive Abiotonic – 1 mg/kg of live weight every other day, the second group Abiopeptide – 1 mg/kg of live weight every other day, the third group Ferropeptide – 0,5 mg/kg, the fourth group of rabbits was the control. The experiment lasted 45 days. All rabbits involved in the experiment were kept in the same conditions. Observation of the animals was carried out according to generally accepted methods throughout the experiment. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 90 days. Clinical examination before slaughter showed that all rabbits were clinically healthy at the time of the experiment. By means of laboratory studies, it was found that the organoleptic characteristics the rabbit meat of the experimental and control groups corresponded to the requirements of good-quality meat. In meat samples taken from experimental rabbits, a decrease in the amount of moisture and an increase in protein content, as well as an increase in the energy value of the resulting product, were noted. Key words: rabbit breeding, protein hydrolysates, meat, chemical composition, total protein, energy value.
59 Nesterenko I.S., Bakai K.A., Priima A.D., Safronova V.A., Sarkanova A.A., Beliatskaya A.V. Development of competitive solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay for the determinations of fluoroquinolone residues in foodstuff of animal origin
Indirect competitive solid-phase ELISA technique has been developed for specific and group specific determination of fluoroquinolones residues in foodstuff of animal origin. Enrofloxacin was determined in the range of 0,1 – 40 μg/L using antibodies obtained for the introduction of Enrofloxacin-BSA. Antisera obtained by immunization with sum fluoroquinolones conjugate (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin) with KLH indicated the broad specificity to fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin et al.). The method was optimized to determine fluoroquinolone residues in honey, meat, milk, shrimp, fish, and eggs. The detection limit for food products was 90 μg/kg when using polyspecific antibodies and 1 μg/kg of enrofloxacin when using specific serum. Key words: fluoroquinolones, polyclonal antibodies, ELISA, residues, foodstuff of animal origin.