3 Makarov V.V., Barsukov Yu.I., Barsukov O.Yu. Natural history fox rabies in Europe
A short analytical report is devoted to the history of the natural focal ecotype of rabies in Europe, which is fundamentally different from the classical one, as an ecological and epizootological phenomenon, which until recently was not sufficiently understood by veterinary science and practice. The eradication of urban canine rabies, the emergence and spread of an epizootic of alternative fox rabies are described, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is characterized as a host species and a virus in a new parasitic system, the epizootic process and the population level of rabies infection. Key words: rabies, Lyssavirus rabies, epizootology, natural focality.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
12 Goncharov A.T., Lenev S.V. Alpha-Monolaurin for prevention and treatment of avian listeriosis
In an experiment conducted on broiler chickens of the Ross 308 cross, infected with Listeria monocytogenes, the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of the antibacterial preparation Salkoli® LAURI® (liquid) based on alpha-monolaurin was revealed. During the experiment, broiler chickens treated with the drug significantly increased live weight gain and the safety of the livestock of the experimental groups was at a high level, the consumption of feed consumed, in relation to the control groups decreased. The antibacterial drug Salkoli® LAURI® (liquid) helps protect birds from listeriosis and sanitizes the body from the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes after 2 – 3 weeks of daily use. Key words: listeriosis, Salkoli® LAURI®, Listeria monocytogenes, poultry, alpha-monolaurin.
18 Budulov N.R., Shapiev M.Sh., Kazimagomedov K.M. Bovine leukemia in Dagestan republic and the effectiveness of health measures
The article presents an analysis of the epizootic situation for bovine leukemia, the results of diagnostic studies and the effectiveness of health measures in the Dagestan Republic. Thanks to the implementation of complex of anti-leukemia measures by veterinary specialists, the intensity of the epizootic process of leukemia has significantly decreased. Key words: leukemia, bovine leukemia virus, BLV infection, spread, immune diffusion reaction, infected object, Dagestan Republic.
25 Davydova N.V., Afonyushkin V.N., Mironova T.E., Kozlova O.S., Mishukova O.V. Symbiotic interactions of microscopic fungi and bacteria isolated from poultry and pigs
The use of antibiotics for other purposes in agriculture is one of the leading reasons that reduces the effectiveness of combating the insensitivity of infectious disease agents to antibiotics prescribed to combat them. It is worth noting that the uncontrolled use of antibiotics leads to a decrease in the immune status of humans and animals, which further provokes the growth of fungal diseases. Therefore, mycoses have recently been increasingly registered in humanitarian and veterinary medicine. To prevent the accumulation of polyresistant bacteria in the agricultural sector. Therefore, it is necessary to understand exactly what factors influence the accumulation of these forms of microorganisms and the ways in which bacteria resist antibiotics in the broadest sense. The possibility of implementing the mechanism of bacterial resistance to antibiotics associated with symbiotic interactions of opportunistic microorganisms and fungi was studied. An important factor in the survival of microorganisms in the presence of antibiotics may be their ability to invade yeast-like fungi. The ability E. coli in the culture of the microscopic fungus Candida famata with the addition of the antibiotic colistin. New scientific data allow us to consider the fungi Debaryomyces/Candida spp. in the context of associated infections and to reconsider the role of antibiotics as a factor of provocation of mycoses. The ability of bacteria to penetrate into the cells of fungi should be considered as one of the universal mechanisms of protection against antibiotics. Key words: symbiosis, antibiotic resistance, E. coli, chickens, pigs, microscopic fungi, Candida.
31 Abilov A.I., Ustimenko A.V., Novgorodova I.P., Kosmenkov P.L. Bioelemental state of first-calf heifers depending on the post-calving period
This work is devoted to the study of the bioelemental state and the level of endogenous hormones in the blood serum of Holstein Black-and-White heifers at different periods after calving. The studies were carried out at the Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry named after Academy Member L.K. Ernst in the conditions of the Nizhny Novgorod region on the basis of ООО Agrofirma Zarya in the Bogorodsky district on 36 heifers. The experiments were carried out using modern sets of reagents and equipment. It was found that the indicators we studied were mostly within the reference values. However, depending on the period of the post-calving period, there were significant differences in almost all of the studied metabolic parameters. The analysis showed that the minerals were also within the normal range however, between the groups in terms of the content of P and Fe, there was a significance. The study of the enzymatic state depending on the period of calving showed a significant difference between the groups in ALT, AST, as well as in the ratio of AST/ALT. It was found that in group II, in the period of 61– 70 days after calving, the concentration of testosterone (by 29,8 %) and estradiol (by 35,4 %) decreases at a statistically significant level. Thyroxine was almost at the same level. The content of cortisol is reduced by almost 10,0 %. According to the variability of the parameters we studied, some animals had deviations from the reference values in terms of minimum and maximum values. The data obtained can be used in the preparation of insemination plans after calving to improve the efficiency of artificial insemination in herds in order to increase the reproductive capacity of first-calf heifers. Key words: first-calf heifers, terms after calving, endogenous hormones, protein-carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, mineral metabolism.
37 Korochkina E.A., Finageev E.Yu., Glavazkaya D.E., Pushkina V.S., Trifonova A.V., Ivanovskaya M.M. The influence of MSCs from adipose tissue and bone marrow of sheep on the quality parameters of their spermatozoa
A protocol is presented for the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) of rams to preserve and improve the quality parameters of sperm of breeding rams. We conducted two experiments with sperm from Romanov breed sires (n=14): in the first, BM MSCs (2x108 cells/ml) were mixed with sperm in a concentration below 7x1010 cells/ml (453 – 523x107 cells/ml), in the second – BM MSCs and VT (2x108 cells/ml) ml) was added to 7x1010 cells/ml sperm. The quality of sperm was analyzed three times – immediately after collection, then after 1 and 2 hours. It has been established that the optimal protocol is the use of mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow or adipose tissue of sheep in a ratio of 2x108 cells/ml MSCs and 7x1010 cells/ml sperm.MSCs from adipose tissue and BM contribute to the preservation of sperm viability for two hours after ejaculate collection. The most pronounced regenerative effect was observed when using MSCs from sheep adipose tissue. Further research is needed to obtain additional reliable data. Key words: sheep, sperm, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow, living tissue, protocol.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
43 Selimov R.N., Goncharova E.N., Gabidullina D.E., Komarov A.A. Study of the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients of the drug ExpressTabs® when administered to dogs
A study was carried out to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients of ExpressTabs® in dogs. Five dogs were used in the experiment. The preparation was administered orally, once in the dosage of 5 mg praziquantel, 0.2 mg moxidectin, 30 mg spinosad per 1 kg body weight. An HPLC-MS method was chosen for the determination of active substances in plasma. Maximum concentration of moxidectin (Cmax) was 231±60 ng/ml, time of its achievement (Tmax) – 4,6±1,3 h. The average moxidectin plasma elimination half-life (T1/2) was 495±123 hours. Cmax of spinosad was 2016±602 ng/ml, Tmax – 4,1±1,1 h. The T1/2 of spinosad from plasma was 254±131 h. The Cmax of praziquantel was 412±232 ng/mL (with Tmax – 2,4±0,9 h), while the Cmax of trans-hydroxypraziquantel was 674±173 ng/mL (Tmax – 3,8±1,5 h). The elimination half-life of praziquantel was 3,5±0,7 h for praziquantel and 6,3±3,6 h for trans-hydroxypraziquantel. The active ingredients of ExpressTabs® – moxidectin, spinosad, praziquantel – were found to actively penetrate into the systemic bloodstream of dogs when administered orally. Therapeutic concentrations of moxidectin and spinosad remain in blood of dogs up to 42 days after oral administration, while concentrations of praziquantel and its active metabolite - up to 24 hours. The proposed combination of active substances, dosage and method of administration of the drug contribute to effective distribution of the drug in the body of dogs, which will ensure long-term protection of animals against a wide range of parasites. Key words: moxidectin, praziquantel, spinosad, trans-hydroxypraziquantel, pharmacokinetics, ExpressTabs®.
48 Matrosova L.E., Tarasova E.Yu., Ermolaeva O.K., Tanaseva C.A., Semenov E.I. Effect of the Galluasorb supplement in T-2, afla- and zearalenontoxicosis of broiler
The article presents the results of the use of the feed additive «Galluasorb» in experimental T-2, afla- and zearalenontoxicosis of broiler chickens. The use of the feed additive «Galluasorb» in a dose of 0,25 % against the background of subacute combined mycotoxicosis contributed to a decrease in the toxic load on the body, manifested by an improvement in the clinical condition and normalization of morphological parameters of the blood. Key words: mycotoxins, mycotoxicosis, broiler chickens, hematology, prevention.
52 Vatnikov Yu.A., Sotnikova E.D., Byakhova V.M., Petrukhina O.A., Rudenko A.A., Zharikov A.M. Characteristics of the development of hepatocardial complications in dogs with mitral valve endocardiosis
The article deals with the problem of the formation and progression of hepatocardial syndrome in dogs with mitral valve endocardiosis. It has been established that hepatocardial complications in dogs with mitral valve endocardiosis develop with a frequency of 41,3 %, and they are manifested by an increase in the serum activity of aspartic and alanine aminotransferases, diffuse changes in the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma and hepatomegaly, dilation of the hepatic veins, caudal vena cava, cachexia. The most important risk factor for the development of hepatocardial syndrome in dogs with mitral valve endocardiosis is the progressive course of congestive circulatory failure. Slowing the progression of heart failure is the most important strategy for preventing the development of hepatocardial complications in animals with primary cardiac diseases. Key words: dogs, endocardiosis, mitral insufficiency, hepatocardial syndrome, diagnostics.