3 Naimanov A.Kh., Kalmykov V.M., Vangeli E.P., Kalmykovа M.S. Tuberculosis vaccines and prevention of infection
The review provides analysis of the literature data and results of authors researches on specific prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Numerous approaches and methods of immunization against tuberculosis, as well as the history of the creation and implementation of BCG vaccine in medical and veterinary practice are specified. The authors pointed out advantages, disadvantages of this vaccine and ways to improve it. There are indicated the problems of specific prophylaxis and possible ways of creating a new generation of vaccines in order to increase the efficacy of specific prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Key words: immunity, mycobacteria, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, specific prophylaxis, tuberculosis, vaccination, vaccines, virulence.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
9 Khmylov A.G. Immunocorrecting therapy as a factor of improving the quality of prevention and treatment of animals
The article presents the arguments in favor of the expediency of inclusion immunocorrecting therapy in the plans of therapeutic and preventive measures developed in the conditions of industrial maintenance and intensive breeding of animals. There are present the information about methods used to control and correction of the immune system with the help of interferon-containing drug Mixoferon®. Key words: immunodeficiency, interferon-α2b, immunomodulators, Mixoferon®, antiviral drugs.
13 Vereecken M., Depondt W., Geerinckx M., Koen De Gussem, Andreeva J.N. New tool for treatment of histomonosis in turkeys
Histomonosis is the invasive disease in turkeys, outbreaks are characterized by mortality reaching 100 %. The use of metronidazole for therapeutic purposes is prohibited in the Russian Federation. In the article we present the results of a scientific experiment to evaluate the sensitivity of the causative of histomonosis in turkeys Histomonas meleagridis to various doses of the aminoglycoside antibiotic of paromomycin sulfate. Histobloc 8% is recommended for the prevention of histomonosis in turkeys. Key words: histomonosis, the aminoglycoside antibiotic, paromomycin sulfate, Histobloc, cysts, start – symptoms.
17 Vlasov M.Е., Slivko I.А., Sereda A.D. Persistence of African swine fever virus in environmental objects
The review deals with some epizootological aspects of African swine fever including the pathogen isolation in the excretions and secretion of infected animals, its persistence in environmental objects, and the feasibility of wild boar feces examination to monitor the infection presence in the above animal species. The represented data indicate that the excretions and secretions are important factors of ASF transmission, especially in winter period when the ASF-contaminated frozen objects preserve their potential hazard for susceptible animals until the warm weather onsets when the insect and/or bacterial activity as well as the dehydration process recommence. In the heated term, the virus is inactivated in contaminated feed, feces or manure within 1 to 2 weeks though being kept in water for 4 to 13 months and in soil up to 4.5 months. Analysis of fecal samples should not yet be considered as a reliable method for African swine fever virus spread monitoring in wild boar populations. Key words: bioassay, African swine fever virus, water, infectivity, feeds, soil, feces.
22 Dyakova S.A., Volodina V.V., Konkova A.V. Characteristic of the caspian seal’s microbiota
The paper contains data on bacterial contamination of internal organs and tissues of the caspian seals, as well as species diversity of microorganisms isolated from them. The maximum number of bacteria detected in the intestines of animals, the minimum – in the kidneys. Associations of saprophytic and opportunistic microorganisms included representatives of 17 genera. Identified bacterial isolates have the potential to cause pathological processes in the parenchymal organs of seals, but the absence of clinical disturbances in the latter indicated the infection of internal organs by the type of asymptomatic bacterial transport. All isolated bacteria possessed high enzymatic and adaptive properties, most of them showed multidrug resistance to various bacterial preparations. In general, the indicators of abundance and species diversity of bacteria, their halotolerance, the presence of pathogenicity factors and multidrug resistance to antimicrobial drugs testify both to the unfavorable microbiological situation in the Caspian sea and the risk of occurrence of epizootics in the population of the caspian seal. Key words: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, internal organs, caspian seal, pathogenicity factors.
27 Zaerko V.I., Gevlich O.A., Fominova I.O., Shulyak A.F., Galnbek T.V., Velichko G.N. Comparative value of cell culture sensitivity to Poxviruses of animals
New, described in this article cultures of cells of different origin are included in Russian special collection of somatic cell cultures from agricultural and animals or pretend to add it up. These cultures have different sensitivity towards viruses f. Poxviridae. Cell cultures LPK and FRK ensured the production vaccinial strains of causative agents of bovine nodular dermatitis, pox и contagious pustular stomatitis of sheep and goats accompanied special CPE, dynamic of reproduction, accumulating in quantity fixed manufacture standarts for relevant vaccine preparations. The productivity replication of these three viruses occurred in the culture KEO, but productivity of bovine nodular dermatitis virus was not very high. Hybrid culture of cells A4L revealed low sensitivity, and the culture of cells KEK demonstrated steadiness to poxviruses of cattle, sheep and goat. Key words: cell culture, cell culture collection, virus, strain, lumpy skin disease, Contagious pustular stomatitis, pox, reproduction, CPE.
34 Yevstafieva V.A., Melnychuk V.V., Yeresko V.I., Lukyanova G.A., Gurenko I.A. Species composition and distribution of htlminths in domestic goose (Anser anser dom.) population
Population density dynamics of most common helminths of domestic goose (Anser anser dom.), and their interspecies relationships were analyzed. Six species of nematodes (Capillaria anseris, C. obsignata, Heterakis dispar, H. gallinarum, Аmidostomum anseris, Trichostrongylus tenuis) and two species of cestodes (Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Tschertkovilepis setigera) were found to parasitize geese either as monoinfections (28,44 %) or mixed infections (71,56 %). The most prevalent helminth species under study were C. anseris (46,76 %), H. dispar (39,57 %) and А. anseris (33,09 %). Helminth associations included two to seven species. Two and three species infections were most common (54,39 % and 25,52 %, respectively). Density of H. dispar, C. anseris, C. obsignata nematodes depended on the type of infection. Relationships between isolated nematode species were antagonistic in case of same location in host organism. Key words: domestic goose, fauna, nematodes, cestodes, parasitocoenosis, helminth relationships.
40 Batrakov А.Y., Yashin A.V., Videnin V.N., Donskaya T.K., Korchagina A.S. Modern aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cows' mastitis
In modern industrial complexes, mastitis is widespread, and reaches in cows from 21,5 to 31,3 % or more of the total number of animals. In this case, the animals sharply reduced milk production, increased microbial contamination and the number of somatic cells of milk. With approbation of the method for diagnosing mastitis in cows with the help of Kompomol M-Test, developed by the company Interchimmet LLC (Russia), we revealed a clear manifestation of the response to mastitis, high sensitivity and efficiency, ease of using in industrial conditions. It was found that the main etiological factor of the occurrence of mastitis are various violations of the technology of machine milking: the qualification of milkmaids, the preparation of the udder to milking, the vacuum parameters, the pulsation rate of the apparatus, the rate of milk yield, the quality of the nipple rubber, the completeness of uddering, and others. In this regard, zoo-engineers, veterinarians should pay great attention to the daily monitoring of the observance of the technology of machine milking, to conduct continuous training of maintenance personnel, aimed at the prevention of udder diseases. Timely detection of sick animals at the beginning of the disease development significantly reduces the risk of spreading mastitis to other animals and microbial seeding of milk and also promotes rapid recovery of animals. The positive effect of treatment of cows with a subclinical form of mastitis with the use of the injection form of the drug Alvezol is established. This monotherapy leads to recovery in 93,3 % of cases. This drug does not contain antibiotics and sulfonamide components. At the same time, the number of somatic cells in milk before the treatment was 912 thousand/ml, and after treatment it was reduced to 195 thousand/ml, while the quality of milk did not decrease. With using Mastomycin intracisternally in cows with a catarrhal form of mastitis, the therapeutic effect reached 70 %, and in combination with intramuscular injection of Kobaktan – 86,6 %. Key words: milk, diagnosis of mastitis, somatic cells, etiology and treatment of mastitis, subclinical and catarrhal mastitis, cows.
44 Evglevsky A.A., Skhira V.N., Turaev S.N., Lebedev A.F., Evglevskaya E.P., Vanina N.V., Mikhailova I.I. The efficacy of energy-metabolic composition based on organic acids in fodder mycotoxicosis of cows
Currently, the most studied and effective method of reducing the negative effects of mycotoxins is the use of chelators. However, the use of adsorbents at acute poisoning does not give a quick positive result. Additionally, you must consider that the adsorbents are removed from the digestive tract of vital micronutrients. With prolonged use they contribute to the development of the trace element that aggravates the clinical manifestations of mycotoxicosis. The most perspective direction of the prevention and treatment of fodder mycotoxicosis, especially in the acute clinical course, can be complex medicines, feed additives, providing effective detoxification and normalization of the work affected by toxins of the bodies, first and foremost the liver. There are present the results of researches on the development of energo-metabolic composition prepared on the basis of organic acids (succinic, citric) and evaluating their effectiveness at acute and chronic mycotoxicosis in fodder. Key words: cows, mycotoxicosis, mycotoxins, energomechanical composition.
48 Danilevskaya N.V., Subbotin V.V. The influence of different doses of probiotic Lactobifadol Forte for pregnant cows and received from them calves
The application of probiotic Lactobifidol Forte to pregnant cows within 40 days before the expected calving daily at doses 10, 20 and 30 g per day normalizes the weight of calves at birth, increasing in comparison with control by 5,9; 7,1 and 14,3%, respectively. Lactobyfadol Forte provides in intestinal of calves early dominance of bifido- and lactobacillus, antagonistic displacement of pathogenic enterobacteria, which reduces morbidity and increases safety of animals.The phagocytic activity of the blood cells of calves receiving Lactobifadol Forte was 75,6±4,17 % with a phagocytosis index of 17,0±3,05, in healthy calves of the control group these parametres were 58,5±1,16 % and 12,7±2,5 respectively. It confirms the immunomodulating effect of the probiotic. All the proposed schemes of probiotic use are cost-effective: at a payback point of 6,27 kg, an additional increase in live weight for 6 months per 10 born calves in the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 amounted to 323,6; 552,0 and 750,1 kg, respectively. The best indicators were noted in the group where dry cows received Lactobifadol Forte at a dose of 30 g per head. Key words: Probiotic, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, cattle, calves, phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, enteropathogenic bacteria, productivity, safety.
54 Sanin A.V., Narovlyansky A.N., Pronin A.V., Kozhevnikova T.N., Sosnovskaya O.Y., Ozherelkov S.V., Klimova D.A., Zhavnis S.E. Correction of toxic hemolytic anemia and stimulation of erythropoiesis with Gamavit
The hemoglobin level, the number of erythrocytes and the hematocrit were sharply reduced by the 7th day and remained significantly below the norm by the 15th day in the experimental anemia of mice caused by phenylhydrazine. Injections of Gamavit and sodium nucleate restored these indices on the 7th day. Sodium nucleate stimulated the formation of erythroid endogenous colonies in the spleen of mice irradiated in a sublethal dose and increased the proliferative activity of stem blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. The activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, as well as bilirubin and creatinine concentration in the blood were significantly increased during anemia induced in mice by phenylhydrazine. The injections of Gamavit contributed to the complete normalization of all these indicators. Sodium nuclease and denatured emulsified placenta exhibited similar but less pronounced pharmaceutical activity. Thus, the restoration of the erythroid germ of hematopoiesis with experimental haemolytic anemia caused by phenylhydrazine is directly related to the active substances of Gamavit, which have an additive or possibly mutually potentiating effect. Key words: anemia, Gamavit, phenylhydrazine, sodium nucleinate, erythropoiesis.
60 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTOR