3 Mishchenko A.V., Gulyukin A.M., Mishchenko V.A., Gulyukin M.I., Shabeykin A.A., Stepanova T.V., Petrova O.N. Economic damage from foot-and-mouth disease
Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most urgent threats to animal health all over the world. It significantly affects animal husbandry as well as challenges international trade in animals and animal products, significantly limiting the export potential of countries and regions. According to veterinary reports over the last 31 years (1991 – 2022) the Russian Federation has recorded 98 unfavourable FMD sites. Although in most cases outbreaks were limited, this period has witnessed three FMD epidemics, outspread to several regions. In most cases FMD were recorded in cattle. The goal of this work is to determine the features and amount of direct economic damage from the FMD outbreak on the example of an average household in two different regions of the country. The results obtained indicate that there is a significant damage from a possible outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease as well as a potential indirect damage. Key words: foot-and-mouth disease, economic damage, susceptible animals, cattle.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
10 Makarov D.A., Gergel M.A. Three challenging problems of honey official control: adulteration of honey (part 2)
Three actual problems of beekeeping and related challenges of official control in Russia are described in this review article: the problem of antibacterial residues in honey, the problem of honey adulteration, and the problem of harmful impact of pesticides on bees. There are 3 main ways of adulteration: by sugars, botanical, and geographical. The last one is the most challenging from the methodological point of view. Unlike EU and other countries, Russian legislation has no criteria of honey fraud. Adoption of them will allow to perform official laboratory monitoring of honey authenticity. Key words: beekeeping, official control, honey, antibiotic residues, adulteration, pesticides.
14 Sakidibirov O.P., Akhmedov M. M., Baratov M.O. Monitoring of the epizootic situation of animal brucellosis in Republic of Dagestan for 1960 – 2020
The most important condition for the growth of animal husbandry and the provision of food to the population is a sharp decrease and then the elimination of infectious diseases and, in particular, brucellosis, which causes great damage to the national economy. No less important is the elimination of brucellosis in epidemiological terms, since animals with brucellosis are the source and reservoir of infection for humans. However, the elimination of this disease is a big problem that requires significant labor and financial resources to carry out a complex of veterinary and sanitary, organizational and economic measures. Without a thorough study of the epizootic state of brucellosis, the fight against this infection is unthinkable. In this regard, we were given a specific task - to conduct epizootological monitoring of brucellosis in cattle and small cattle for 60 years. Key words: brucellosis, epizootic process, monitoring, relapse, disadvantaged areas, vaccination.
18 Belkina Yu.S., Sidorchuk A.A. Cattle hoof pathology: methods and tools of control
The review presents an analysis of publications in Russian and foreign literature on methods of prevention, control and treatment of highly productive cows with foot lesions, mainly of an infectious nature. It has been noted that foot baths are the most effective and economical method. An analysis of various schemes and methods of using foot baths and the most commonly used drugs is presented. Some methods of local treatment of these lesions with the use of antibacterial drugs are considered. Key words: lameness, lesions of the hooves and digits in cattle, foot baths, prophylaxis and control methods.
24 Naimanov A.Kh., Tolstenko N.G., Vangeli E.P., Myasoedov Yu.M. Improving the accounting of a simultaneous sample with PPD-tuberculin for mammals and CAM
An analysis of allergic studies of cattle with a simultaneous test with PPD-tuberculin for mammals and CAM is presented. The main advantages and disadvantages of a simultaneous test are indicated, provided that it is used in accordance with the methodology of November 28, 1981, that is, approved more than 40 years ago. Based on the results of the research, the authors believe that at the present stage of the fight against bovine tuberculosis, when using a simultaneous test, there is no need to evaluate reactions by a group accounting method, use a table for determining the reliability of the reaction, and re-examine the entire herd with a simultaneous test when identifying animals that respond to tuberculin. Due to the fact that in case of group registration of research results, a simultaneous test in 69,5 % of cases gives an uncertain result, the registration and evaluation of research results should be carried out individually for each animal responding to PPD for mammals with an increase in the skin fold by 3 mm or more. Responding animals should be considered suspected of TB infection and tested in a simultaneous test with PPD for mammals and CAM. Those responding to a simultaneous test should be counted and subjected to diagnostic slaughter of animals with an increase in the skin fold of 3 mm or more on PPD for mammals than on CAM. The authors consider the simultaneous test with PPD for mammals and CAM to be an effective additional test in order to select animals suspected of infection for diagnostic slaughter and diagnosis of tuberculosis. In conclusion, the authors propose a new method for accounting for a simultaneous sample with PPD for mammals and CAM. Key words: tuberculosis, cattle, allergic studies, non-specific reactions, simultaneous test.
30 Chadaeva A.A., Povolyaeva O.S., Lapteva O.G., Lunitsin A.V., Yurkov S.G. Biological properties of subcultures of primary kidney cells and rabbit fetal skin
Primary cell cultures and their early subcultures that for the most part preserve the cellular heterogeneity of the parent tissue, including target cells, are considered as the main laboratory model for field virus isolation. The multifactorial nature of the process of obtaining cell cultures leads to significant variability in the biological properties of cultures isolated from the same organ or tissue of the same animal species, including the spectrum of susceptibility to viruses belonging to different taxonomic groups and virus accumulation level. This research describes the results of obtaining primary cell cultures from fetal rabbit kidney and skin tissues, creating cryobanks from their early subcultures, and their characterization. The obtained cell cultures are sensitive to lumpy skin disease virus, rabbit myxoma, and rabbit Shope fibroma viruses, and can be recommended for the primary isolation of field viruses and investigation of the variability and evolution of the viral pathogens. Key words: primary cell cultures, cultivation, rabbit fetus, viruses, infectious activity.
38 Dashinimaev B.Ts., Boyarova L.I., Dashinimaev S.M. Distribution and species composition of helminths of the digestive tract of sheep and dzeren in the Trans-Baikal Territory
The distribution and species composition of helminths of the digestive tract of sheep and gazelles were studied using the methods of helminthoovooscopy, PGV and NGV, and common pathogens of helminthiases found in the Trans-Baikal Territory were identified. In total, 26 species of helminths were registered in the digestive tract of sheep in the Trans-Baikal Territory, including: trematodes – 1, cestodes – 3, and nematodes – 22. According to the results of our studies, nematodes from the suborder Strongylates, from cestodes – moniesia are widespread in the digestive tract of sheep, which are found in all zones, and trematodes (paramphistomas) are found only in three southwestern regions of the region, where sheep breeding is poorly developed. According to our data, helminthiases of the digestive tract in gazelles are represented by 15 species of helminths, including 1 species in the adult stage and 2 species of the larval stage of cestodes, and 12 species of nematodes. We also found our own specific nematodes from the suborder Strongylates in gazelles: Nematodirus abnormalis (EI – 64,6 %), Nematodirus spathiger (EI – 81,5 %), Nematodirus helvetianus (EI – 63,1 %). In addition to these helminths, the nematode Setaria labiato-papillosa (EI – 67,7 %) and the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus larva (EI – 30,7 %) are very common in gazelles. In total, 10 common helminths of the digestive tract were found in sheep and gazelles. Strongylatoses of the digestive organs in these animals in the Trans-Baikal Territory are widespread, affecting animals with EI – 68,4 % and 87,6%, respectively. Cestodoses are much less common with EI – 7,9 % in sheep and 3,1% in gazelles. In addition, more than half of the animal population is infected with the larval form of Cysticercus tenuicollis with EI – 58,3% and 56,9 % and Eimeriosis with EI – 7,4% and 10,8 %. Key words: sheep, gazelle, helminths, nematodes, cestodes, parasitosis, digestive tract.
41 Safiullin R.T., Chalysheva E.I. A comprehensive program to combat the exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria spp. in the conditions of turkey farms of industrial type
To control the exogenous stages of Eimeria oocysts, disinfestation of poultry houses during the preparation of the new complex agent Kenokoks 4%, norm 0,5 l/m2, exposure 2 hours. To control the endogenous stages of Eimeria oocysts, Toltrazuril was prescribed together with the probiotic Vetelact. Toltrazuril 2,5 % was administered to turkey poults from 10 days of age at a dose of 1 ml per 1 liter of drinking water for two consecutive days for 6 weeks. Probiotic Vetelact was prescribed with feed at a dose of 0,1 ml per 1 kg of turkey poults. A comprehensive treatment and prophylactic program shows high efficiency against eimeria, a positive effect on the level of biosecurity of birds where young animals are grown, turkeys and on high production rates. Key words: integrated control program, kenokoks, toltrazuril, efficiency vetelact.
49 Kachalin M.D., Pozyabin S.V., Borkhunova E.N. Induction of focal osteoarthritis in sheep for use in experimental arthrology
Arthrosis in humans and animals is characterized by the destruction of hyaline cartilage with the development of degenerative processes and the formation of pathological tissues. The search for new methods of treating arthrosis involves research that requires the induction of arthrosis in experimental model animals, one of which is a sheep. The induction technique should be reproducible and controlled, easy to perform and have the least number of complications. The article presents the methodology and results of our own research on the development of a model of focal induced knee arthrosis in sheep for use in experimental arthrology. Hyaline cartilage defects were formed in twelve sheep, the clinical and hematological, orthopedic, tomographic and morphological dynamics of arthrosis formation, the timing and nature of closure of the cartilage defect were evaluated. It was found that when forming a defect with a diameter of 8.0 mm and a milling cutter rotation speed of 600 revolutions per second to a depth of 2 mm. the clinical picture of arthritis is observed for 47 days, and the rate of filling the defect with fibrous cartilage is 120 days. These data make it possible to use the obtained methodology in the development of tools and methods for the treatment of arthrosis and post-traumatic processes in joints in humans and animals. Key words: sheep, joint, cartilage, arthrosis, arthrology, surgery.
52 Vatnikov Yu.A., Sotnikova E.D., Biakhova V.M., Petrukhina O.A., Matveev A.V., Rodionova N.Yu., Rudenko A.A. Features of the development of hepatocardial syndrome in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy
This article discusses the problem of the development of hepatocardial syndrome in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. This pathology is characterized by the development of hepatomegaly and diffuse changes in the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma, dilatation of the hepatic veins, increased activity of the serum activity of aspartic and alanine aminotransferases, against the background of cardiomegaly, tachycardia, depression of systolic dysfunction, and expansion of the caudal vena cava. Key words: dogs, diagnostics, dilated cardiomyopathy, hepatocardial syndrome.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
58 Grishaeva I.N., Krotova M.G., Nepriyatel A.A., Belozerskikh I.S., Korolkova A.I. The effect of velvet antler products on the thyroid hormone levels in dogs
The objective of the study is to assess the effect of velvet antler products on the thyroid hormone levels in dogs. 25 ml of the product was added to the animals’ feed within 14 days. The triiodothyronine concentration in the blood of the experimental group dogs increased by 23,5 %, whereas the concentration of velvet extract increased by 55,2 %. The control group animals, on the contrary, showed a decrease in triiodothyronine by 36,5 %. The thyroxine concentration reduced by 4,8 times in the first group, by 9.8 times in the second group, and by 25 times in the control group, compared to its levels at the beginning of the experiment. The thyroid conversion rate showed a significant increase: it was 98.3% in the first group, 96.0% in the second group, and 39,7 % in the control group. Based on the conducted scientific experiment, we also studied the biochemical composition of hormone-dependent indicators of homeostatis. Specifically, the first and second experimental groups showed an increase in the total protein level (9,95 and 37,3 %, respectively), against the background of an increase in thyroid hormones. The levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were within the normal range; the levels of RBC and haemoglobin increased by 42,3 and 19,7 % compared to the control. Key words: maral, thyroid gland, thyroid hormones, velvet antler products.
62 Batov I.V., Sorokin A.V., Nekrasov D.Yu., Mamedova E.I., Gracheva T.S., Sukhova T.M., Kish L.K. Quantitative determination of polypeptide antibiotics in samples of animal origin
A method for the quantitative determination of polypeptide antibiotic residues in animal products has been developed. The technique allows the determination of 10 compounds: bacitracin A, bacitracin B, colistin A, colistin B, polymyxin B1, polymyxin B2, actinomycin D, virginiamycin S1, virginiamycin M1, and novobiocin. The sample preparation is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by concentration and redissolution. The determination is carried out by chromato-mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode, with registration of fragment ions. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the analyzed compounds is in the range from 1 to 5 μg/kg. The method has passed metrological certification for three types of livestock products – muscle tissue, liver and milk. The expanded uncertainty of the measurement results exists in the range from 20 to 70 % at a coverage factor of k=2. Key words: mass spectrometry, HPLC-MS/MS, polypeptide antibiotics, livestock products, quantitative analysis.