3 Glotov A.G., Glotova T.I., Koteneva S.V., Nefedchenko A.V. Pestivirus H (BVDV-3): role in cattle pathology (a review)
A review of the literature on the role of pestivirus H in the pathology of cattle is presented. It includes the characteristics of the pathogen according to the modern classification, historical background, data on its distribution in the world and the Russian Federation. The main clinical signs of the disease are briefly described in comparison with classical strains of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease. The main route of spread: transiently and persistently infected animals, as well as biological preparations contaminated with the virus. The genetic and antigenic characteristics of the isolated strains of the virus indicate its separate state from classical strains. The causative agent includes five genetic subtypes (a-e). The agent was first identified in fetal bovine serum obtained in Brazil and packaged in Europe, then found in Italy, Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Turkey, and China. Outbreaks of infection in Russia were registered in 2021. At present, there are no specific methods of infection control, including vaccination. The use of commercially available vaccines against BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 is ineffective. To contain the spread of the virus in the regions, it is necessary to include pestivirus strains in commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea. It is necessary to develop diagnostic test systems based on real-time RT-PCR, as well as infection control programs. Key words: bovine pestiviruses, pestivirus H, genetic differences, distribution, clinical manifestations, prevention and control measures.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
12 Shulyak A.F., Velichko G.N., Gorokhov D.Yu. Application experience of polimerase chain reaction for detection BoHV-1 in bull semen
Polimerase chain reaction is a sensitive specific method for promptly testing a significant number of bull semen samples for BoHV-1 contamination. At the same time the use of PCR contains a risk of obtaining 12-20% false or uncertain results (excluding mechanical contamination of samples). False-positive results were obtained most offen with combined samples, false-negative in case of unsatisfactory DNA isolation, doubtful – at amplification curve rising after 27th cycle PCR RT and atypical graphs or electroforegrams forming. Such results are needed additional research, the procedure for which is described in this article. Key words: BoHV-1, bulls, semen, PCR.
17 Zhuravleva E.A., Stafford V.V., Khusnetdinova N.F. Maedi-Visna in sheep
Lentiviruses of small ruminants cause chronic disease and significant economic losses. Early and accurate diagnosis is the key to successful herd control and health improvement. The main problem preventing accurate and timely diagnosis is the genetic variability of lentiviruses associated with mutations and recombination of the genome. Uncertain routes of transmission and features of the immune response and late antibody production make it difficult to identify infected animals. This paper presents summary information on the presence of maedi-visna in some federal districts of the European part of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea, obtained by screening sheep in 2022-2023. Comparative data are presented on parallel testing of sera in two Elisa test systems available in the Russian Federation and the clinical case of maedi-visna. Key words: maedi- visna, ELISA, sheep, histology.
23 Fedorov Yu.N., Bogomolova O.A., Romanenko M.N., Tsar'kova K.N., Anisina O.V. Transmission immunity from mother to offspring in domestic animals
Maternal immunity is the main early defense against infectious agents in newborns. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is indispensable for immune defense against infectious agents. IgG is transported through either the colostrum or the placenta. The objective of this review immunity transport from mother to offspring in several types of placentas. The placenta types in different species are classified by the number of membranes separating the maternal and fetal blood circulation. This review presents and provides brief overview of current knowledge and modern concept the basic principles, mechanisms and regularities of the transfer of antibodies and immunocompetent cells from mother to offspring. Key words: mammalian fetal membranes placenta, immunoglobulin, colostrum, immunoglobulin G (IgG), passive immunity.
28 Ovchinnikov R.S., Samylina I.V., Savinov V.A. Associations of fungi and bacteria in the biotopes of domestic animals
We have studied the frequency of occurrence of myco-bacterial associations (MBAs) in animals. In the study of 780 samples of clinical material from various animal species suspected of infectious diseases, fungi were found in 47,2 %. At the same time, in 89.4% of cases, along with fungi, associated bacteria were found. The species of the genus Staphylococcus (47,1 %) and Escherichia (20,7 %) were found most often in associations. The occurrence of bacterial associates in fungi of various genera varied in the range of 76,9 – 100 %. The prevalent associates in Candida spp. were E. coli (24,7 %) and Staph. pseudintermedius (17,9 %), while in Malassezia spp. - Staph. pseudintermedius (26,9 %) and Staph. epidermidis (16,5 %). The proportion of gram-positive associates in Candida spp. was 51,6 %, in Malassezia spp. – 80 %. The proportion of Gram-negative associates in Candida spp. was 48,3 %, while in Malassezia spp. – only 20 %. In molds (genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Geotrichum, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chrysosporium), the main associates were Staph. pseudintermedius (33 %) and E. coli (23,9 %). Key words: co-infection, bacterial associates, mycobacterial associations, symbiotic relationships, microflora, companion animals.
34 Loschinin M.N., Ishkova T.A., Chulkina I.A., Alexseyenkova S.V. Modern diagnostics of equine nuttalliosis
The article presents data on the modern diagnosis of the causative agent of equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi). Analyzed blood samples from 436 horses from various regions of the Central, Southern, Northwestern and North Caucasian regions of the Russian Federation in 2022. The results of ELISA for the diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi) in the Russian Federation showed the largest number of positive samples (40,6 %) collected in 2022 in April and November. The maximum antibody titers were registered in March and revealed to 206 – 234 % at the standard value according to the instructions no more than 60 %. In blood smears, Theileria equi of characteristic morphology were found. The results of the study by microscopy were confirmed by PCR. Isolates of Theileria equi was studied by nucleotide sequencing. Analysis of the data showed the distribution of strains, in most cases obtained from the Central Federal region of the Russian Federation, closely related to strains of Theileria equi from China, 2021. The nucleotide identity was 91 – 93 %. Key words: piroplasmidoses, Theileria equi, PCR, 18S rRNA, CFT, ELISA, ema-1, rap-1.
41 Nikitina A.A. Some indicators of cows' metabolism in different periods of pregnancy and their impact on clinical status
The dynamics of some biochemical parameters of blood, reflecting protein and fat metabolism, in different periods of pregnancy in dairy cows are considered. As a result of the work, it was determined that a significant redistribution of a number of metabolic processes develops in the pre-calving period. So, when analyzing changes in the concentration of total protein, there is a tendency to increase this indicator from the 3rd to the 8th – 9th months of pregnancy, while there is an unreliable trend towards an increase in the globulin fraction. Thus, the concentration of total protein gradually increased, and by 3 – 4 months it became 5,2 % higher, by 6 – 7th by 8,6 % higher, and by 8 – 9th – by 16,2 %, according to compared with data obtained from animals at 3 months of pregnancy. The concentration of lipids in the blood also increased. So, by the 3rd – 4th month of pregnancy, the concentration of triglycerides became 16,8 % higher compared to animals at the 2nd month of pregnancy, and then it increased less intensively – by 7– 8th month of pregnancy by 3,6 %, and by 8 – 9 months – by 2,6 %, compared with the data for each period, while it is worth noting that the total concentration of triglycerides increased by more than 24 %. Thus, after analyzing the obtained data, we can conclude that as pregnancy develops from the 2nd to the 9th month, the metabolic load gradually increases, which is most pronounced in the restructuring of lipid and protein metabolism. Key words: cows, metabolism, triglycerides, fatty acids, total protein, pregnancy.
45 Malakhova L.S., Omarov A.A., Surov A.I., Karpova E.D. Synchronization of estrus in sheep with various prostaglandin preparations
The article presents the results of the use of prostaglandin preparations Magestrofan® (JSC "Mosagrogen", Russia), and Bag-estrofanum (SPC "BelAgroGen", Republic of Belarus) at a dose of 125 mcg of the active substance cloprostenol for synchronization of estrus in sheep. With a single frontal administration of the drug Magestrofan® 87,5 % of ewes showed synchronous estrus. The fertilization rate according to the results of lambing was 92,5 %. With the introduction of the drug Bug-estrofanum, this indicator was 12,5 % lower and amounted to 75,0 % with a fertilization rate of 85,0 %. Key words: sheep, synchronization of estrus, Magestrofan®, Bug-estrofanum, insemination, fertilization, fertility.
48 Prituzhalova A.O., Kuzmina T.I. Effects of ionol on the viability of devitrified porcine granulosa cells at prolonged culture
The possibility of using of ionol as a promising cryoprotective agent in the vitrification of porcine granulosa cells from ovarian follicles used in IVP of embryos, somatic cloning was evaluated. As a result of complex testing of indicators of granulosa cell viability (ROS, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis) after exposure to ultralow temperatures and subsequent prolonged cultivation, the optimal concentration of ionol (50 μM) was revealed, in which it showed the most pronounced antioxidant properties. After addition of 50 µM ionol into the vitrification media, a significant decreasing in the proportion of apoptotic cells (13 %, p˂0,05) and cells with high level of ROS (11 %, p˂0,05) was revealed in comparison with the control after the vitrification procedure. (0h). After 44 hours, positive dynamics persisted in terms of the proportion of apoptotic cells (a decrease by 23 %), the proportion of cells with an increased content of ROS decreased by 32 % (p˂0,01), and the proportion of cells with high functional activity of mitochondria decreased by 22 % (p˂0,01). Treatment of cells with 10 μM ionol did not reveal significant differences in the analyzed parameters at all stages of culture. After 66 hours, granulosa cells of all the studied groups tended to increase the proportion of cells with increased ROS generation and functional activity of mitochondria. The results obtained can be used in modernization of porcine granulosa cells protocols of vitrification, which will increase their viability and functional activity after exposure to ultra-low temperatures. Key words: granulosa cells, vitrification, mitochondria, ROS, ionol, apoptosis, pig
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
55 Sherbakova G.Sh., Рoрov N.I., Shuteeva Е.N., Kyvshinchikov N.N., Saypyllaev M.S. Disinfection activity of a composite agents the prevention and elimination of infections diseases
The article is devoted to research on the search for effective and accessible to a wide range of consumers of disinfectants of domestic production to ensure the well-being of infectious diseases caused by agents of resistance groups I – IV groups of resistance to chemical disinfectants. Key words: disinfection, contamination, exposure, glutaraldehyde, solution.
62 Prasolova O.V., Kish L.K., Malik N.I., Gritsyuk V.A., Babushkina А.E. Formation of collections of representatives of the normal microflora of farm animals, aspects of normative-legal regulation
The article considers problematic issues of creation of state collections of microorganisms on the example of formation, preservation and development of the state collection of representatives of normal microflora of agricultural animals and cryogenic banks of samples of normal microbiocenoses. The stages of formation of collections of microorganisms in the world are reflected, the state regulation of collection activity is analyzed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the provisions of modern doctrine and current legislation of the Russian Federation. Creation of a unified system of normative-legal regulation of collection activity is an important step towards ensuring biological safety, taking into account the different form of departmental affiliation of collections of microorganism strains. A unified algorithm for the creation of collections and the possibility of their replenishment, the developed system of duplication of collection funds and the rules for maintaining the catalog of strains, is one of the important steps towards the creation of a unified Russian network of biobanks, allowing for effective cooperation of all its participants both at the national and international levels. However, not all aspects of the work of state collections have a unified regulation of actions yet. The main attention is paid to the problematic aspects of different forms of microorganism strains depositing and intellectual property protection. Key words: normoflora, collection activities, microbial strains, depositing.