CONTENTS №11-2021

3 Gaynullina A.G., Ovchinnikov R.S., Savinov V.A., Kapustin A.V., Laishevtcev A.I., Gulykin A.M. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycosis of increasing significance

The actual data on the etiology, pathogenesis, prevalence of cryptococcosis in animals are summarized. Methods of diagnosis and therapy of the mycosis are considered. The disease is caused by fungi of the genus Cryptococcus, which affect the respiratory tract and central nervous systems. Wide range of animal species are susceptible as well as humans. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycosis of current interest and requires further study. Key words: сryptococcosis, cryptococci, mycoses, pathogenic fungi, fungal infections, opportunistic mycoses, emergent mycoses.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.03-09

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

10 Krasnoperov A.S., Bezborodova N.A., Poryvaeva A.P., Kozhukhovskaya V.V., Lysova Ya.Yu., Malkov S.V., Oparina O.Yu. Clinical and laboratory diagnostics of digital dermatitis in high productive dairy cattle

The data obtained in the complex clinical and laboratory diagnosis of digital dermatitis in cattle are presented in the article. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of this disease have been established – violations of the technology of keeping cows and the implementation of not in full zoohygienic measures. In the future, this leads to the development of traumatism of the distal extremities and the penetration of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora through the damaged areas of the skin and horny tissue of the hooves. It was revealed that the main source of pathogens as etiological agents in cows' hoof disease is litter, in which purulent-necrotic and opportunistic pathogenic microflora was isolated, also found in washings from the wound surface of the hooves. It was registered that digital dermatitis in cattle is accompanied by an acute inflammatory process, tension of the functions of the cellular link of the immune system, metabolic disorders - hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia in 30 % of cases, parameters of protein metabolism – in 60 % of cases. Key words: digital dermatitis, highly productive cows, diagnostics, hematology, immunology, biochemistry, microbiology.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.10-17

17 Salnikov N.I., Senina M.E., Preobrazhenskaya A.S., Devrishova Z.S., Varentsova A.A. Development of the test kit for detection of African swine fever virus by Real-Time PCR

This article presents data on the development of the test kit for detection of African swine fever virus (ASF) DNA by Real-Time PCR. Analytical specificity of the developed test kit was evaluated by testing DNA/RNA of classical swine fever virus, porcine respiratory-reproductive syndrome virus, pseudorabies virus, porcine circoviruses 2 and 3, porcine parvovirus, as well as biological samples from clinically healthy animals. The analytical sensitivity of the developed test-system, determined using recombinant plasmid DNA, containing the genome’s fragment of ASF virus, was 1x103 copies/ml. With multiple studies of samples of pathological material from pigs infected with the ASF virus, a high repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility of results were established. The possibility of using the developed set of reagents for detecting ASF virus DNA in food samples was shown. Key words: pigs, African swine fever, virus, Real-Time PCR, food samples.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.17-22

INFECTION DISEASE

23 Zhuravleva E.A., Shulyak A.F. Biological properties of bovine Ortopneumovirus

Ortopneumovirus in cattle is causes respiratory disease in many countries. The virus belongs to the family Pneumoviridae of the genus Ortopneumovirus. This paper reports current data about biological features, morphology, the pathogen’s structure, and its antigenic characteristic. We analize the genetic variability of Ortopneumoviruses. Functions of viral proteins are described in details; as well as their connection with pathogenesis and immunogenesis of infection. Key words: infection, orthopneumovirus, morphology, proteins, genome, variability.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.23-28

28 Arakelyan P.K., Tregubov A.N., Vergun A.A., Ilyin E.N., Dimova A.S., Dimov S.K., Yanchenko T.A. The role of specific prevention in the control of the epizootic process of brucellosis cattle

A retrospective epizootological analysis shows that the effective control of the epizootic process of large cattle brucellosis is possible only with mandatory use in dysfunctional and threatened vaccine flocks based on the principle of technological schemes of their application, which consists in providing a long-term level of immunity of unhindered diagnosis aimed at identifying brusecels. Most of the outbreaks of brucellosis currently occurs on the private population of cattle, significantly prevailing over social and without immunity due to the lack of technological vaccination schemes for it, with diverse conditions for its reparation. A scheme based on the conjunctival method of immunization and re-immunization of animals of a vaccine from a stable agglutinogenic strain B.abortus 19 in a reduced dose, which has previously proven itself positively in the conditions of experiments and production experiments. Key words: cattle, brucellosis, control of the epizootic process, scheme of specific prophylaxis, vaccines from strains 19 and 82, post-specific diagnostics, manufacturability, retrospective epizootological analysis.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.28-32

33 Marinin L.I., Shishkova N.A., Tjurin E.A., Titareva G.M., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A. Interaction of geobionts and anthrax pathogen in soil

The article deals with the interaction of geobionts and the causative agent of anthrax in the soil in connection with the long-term persistence of B. anthracis in stationary-disadvantaged points (cattle burial grounds). The results of the assessment of the influence of earthworms on the purification of the soil from the microbe of anthrax pathogen and the properties of microorganisms isolated from worms are presented. Studies have shown that under the influence of worms there is a decrease in the amount of in the soil by 30 – 50 %, but the remaining spores have not changed their properties and have retained all the main biological and genetic factors of pathogenicity. In the soil the spores can be captured by amoebae, in the cytoplasm of which they are able to germinate into vegetative cells. Key words: earthworms, amoebas, B. anthracis, spore culture, cultivation, soil.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.33-37

INVASIVE DISEASE

38 Safiullin R.T., Safiullin R.R., Shibitov S.K. Disinfection of environmental objects against oocysts of coccidia of foxes and arctic foxes

The study of the effectiveness of different concentrations of the complex Isodez agent, consisting of the optimal concentrations of two active substances and auxiliary components at a dose of 0,5 l per m2 with an exposure of 2 hours, for disinfestation of environmental objects against oocysts of coccidia of foxes and foxes was 92,6 and 96,7 % respectively. At concentrations of 6 and 7 % Isodes against oocysts of coccidia in puppies of foxes and polar foxes showed 100 % IE. Phenol 5 %, taken as a base drug, showed 64,7 – 84,5 % IE. In a production test, Isodez, 6 % in the indicated dose and exposure against oocysts of coccidia of foxes and polar foxes, showed 94,8 % IE. Key words: coccidia, foxes, arctic foxes, disinfestation, Isodez, production test, intensefficiency.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.38-41

42 Diallo A.U.S., Camara M.F., Barry A., Keyra M., Keyra M., Sidime Yu., Loua N.F., Kolie C., Soumah L.I., Konstantinov O.K., Guzeeva T.M., Boiro M.Y. Therapeutic test of essential oil extracted from Allium sativum for the treatment of neoascaridioses in small ruminants

The diseases caused by helminths are always a major constraint to productivity in small ruminants in the tropics. Garlic, Allium sativum L., a member of the Liliacea family, has been widely recognized as a valuable spice and a folk remedy for a variety of bacterial and parasitic diseases. The objective of this study was to test a treatment neoascaridioses of small ruminants with the essential oil of garlic. A sample of 43 animals with character disease symptoms (diarrhea, cough, spiky hair, anorexia, nasal discharge, pale mucous membranes, growth retardation) were studied. In the stool samples of 40 animals the eggs of neoascarids were founded by flotation method. The animals that make up the experimental group received the essential oil of Allium sativum L. whereas those in the control group received vitamin B-complex as placebo. In 10 days after the last administration of the product, it was found an improvement in the general condition of the treated animals. It was found a significant decrease in the number of eggs per gram of feces. This study shows that garlic can be used as first-line treatment of neoascariases in small ruminants. A combination with other plant extracts could increase the effectiveness of the essential oil of garlic. Key words: Allium sativum, essential oil, therapeutic trial, Ascariasis, small ruminants.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.42-44

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY

45 Kuzmich R.G., Garganchuk A.A. Functional state of the ovaries in mammary cows during the period of involution processes after parturition

As a result of the diverse influence of numerous causative factors on the body of cows in the postpartum period, problems arise in cows with the recovery and quality of the course of sexual cycles, which leads to prolonged anestrus and multiple unsuccessful inseminations. Currently, many dairy enterprises still cannot decide on the correct scientifically based choice of a reproduction management program. The reason for this, to some extent, is the economic state of the enterprise, the level of technological approach, professionalism of specialists, human factor and others. The question of the time of insemination of cows after parturition is especially relevant. It is known from scientific sources and practice that this indicator depends on the time of completion of the involution of the reproductive apparatus of animals. However, these processes are influenced by many factors and they are different for the cows of each dairy enterprise. Taking into account the existing problem, we conducted studies on the course of the involution processes of the ovaries in cows with different milk performance. As a result, it was found that the completion of the recovery of the ovarian function (the first ovulation after parturition) in cows is observed within 28,4±7,32 – 39,3±12,54 days after parturition, and the period from calving to the completion of uterine involution is from 44,5±9,37 to 58,2±10,56 days, depending on the productivity of animals. The maximum fertilization rate in cows with a milk productivity of 15 – 20 liters/day was 56,7 % when they were inseminated in their third heat, in animals with the productivity of 25 – 30 liters this indicator was significantly lower – 34,7 %. Abnormalities in follicular genesis were revealed, which were characterized by the retardation in the development of follicles, and the absence of a dominant follicle. No yellow body and follicles were found in the ovaries, or, if follicles were found, their diameter ranged from 6 to 10 mm. The ovaries were slightly reduced in size: their length was about – 3,21 cm and width – 1,85 cm. Thereafter such follicles were subjected to luteinization or atresia. In the course of studies on the 14th day after parturition, a low level of progesterone was found, almost 2 times (1,27±0,19 and 0,67±0,09 nmol/l), in the blood serum of cows with a daily milk yield of 25 – 30 liters or more. On day 30, the difference in the content of estradiol was 2,4 times (128,41±16,92 and 53,70±6,53 nmol/l, respectively) and progesterone – 2,9 times (3,53±0,22 and 1,2±10,12 nmol/l) in cows in groups with different milk productivity. This indicates the fact that with a low level of progesterone, there is retardation in the recovery of the reproductive function in high yielding dairy cows after parturition due to the functional disorders of the ovaries and focuses on the need to use hormonal regulation during this period. Key words: ovaries, postpartum involution, fertility, postpartum anestrus, ultrasound, linked immunosorbent assay, estradiol, progesterone.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.45-48

ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY

49 Razaev S.V., Vyazenen G.N., Golovey V.V., Vyazenen A.G., Barashkov A.E., Fashchenkova V.T., Pavlova E.M. The effects of laser radiation and ozonation on the productivity of meat chickens of the Hubbard cross

The development of industrial poultry farming in the regions of the Russian Federation has led to an increase in the gross production of dietary meat by increasing the productivity of broilers of imported crosses. Further development of poultry meat farming, along with the regulation of pricing policy in the country and abroad, requires the development and use of modern domestic devices, equipment and technologies for growing broiler chickens based on local feed resources. In the conditions of the poultry enterprise activity, fattening and meat qualities, especially in the efficiency of consumption and use of nutrients and biologically active substances, and metabolic energy of the rations of broiler chickens of the Hubbard cross at different age periods of growing were revealed. With the use of 4 recipes for complete feed in the diets, under the same conditions of feeding and maintenance, on the basis of No. 3 of Patio LLC Belgrankorm (Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod region), one of the methods of growing broiler chickens using a domestic semiconductor IR laser is presented "Pattern 2K-Super" and ozonizer "Rios-20" (mode 3 with a capacity of 20 g/m3). Key words: Broiler chickens, rearing, amino acids, vitamins, laser, ozonizer, productivity, conversion.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.49-53

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE

54 Tuvardzhiev A.V., Kovalev S.P. Prospects for using high-frequency therapy (EHF) in veterinary clinical practice (part 1)

The presented review considers a wide range of animal diseases, in the treatment of which the clinical efficacy of EHF-therapy has been proven. A small number of contraindications, the absence of adverse reactions and good tolerance of this method were noted. It is shown that EHF radiation is well combined with other physical factors of treatment, complements drug therapy, reduces the toxic effect of drugs, increases the effectiveness of treatment and reduces its cost. Key words: extremely high frequency therapy, millimeter waves, free therapy.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.11.54-59

60 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY

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CONTENTS №11-2021