3 Alexeyenkova S.V. Distinctive properties of hypervirulent strains of equine herpesvirus type 1 genotype A2254 circulating in Russia
The article presents the results of screening of samples taken from horses during acute outbreaks of abortion and neurological disorders registered in 2019-2021 in Russia. The causative agent was equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1). The results of this work indicate the frequency of mutations in conserved regions of the EHV-1 genome (ORF30, ORF11). New viruses registered on the territory of the Russian Federation are closely related to EHV-1 strains that have been circulating in Europe in recent years (2016 – 2019). In accordance with the structure of the genome, they belong to the "wild" genotype A2254 due to the absence of the 752 ORF30 mutation, and in accordance with the phenotype they are highly virulent. Point mutations characteristic of viruses found only in 2021 may be preferred targets for new PCR-based diagnostic methods. Key words: equine rhinopneumonitis, viral abortion, EHV-1, genotype A2254, horses, diagnostic.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
11 Makarov D.A., Gergel M.A. Three challenging problems of honey official control: adulteration of honey (part 3)
Three actual problems of beekeeping and related challenges of official control in Russia are described in this review article: the problem of antibacterial residues in honey, the problem of honey adulteration, and the problem of harmful impact of pesticides on bees. The extent of harmful impact of pesticides on bees is a debated question. In EU 3 neonicotinoids, belonging the most harmful for bees, are no longer used. In different countries, including Russia, pesticides become the cause of bee poisoning. Mass mortality of bees in Russia in 2019 led to the enforcement of pesticide legislation aimed to protect beekeepers. Key words: beekeeping, official control, honey, antibiotic residues, adulteration, pesticides.
15 Gulyukin A.M., Belimenko V.V., Shabeikin A.A., Tsaregradsky P.Yu., Patrikeev V.V. Epizootic situation on African swine fever in nature conservation areas
The article provides information about the epizootic situation on African swine fever in Nature Conservation Areas in the Russian Federation in 2015 – 2021. Total for the period from 2015 to 2021. ASF outbreaks were registered in 30 Nature Conservation Areas. In twenty-two Nature Conservation Areas, diseased animals were detected within one calendar year, in five the ASF epizootic lasted two years, and in three the circulation of the ASF virus in the wild boar population took a period with a total duration of three years. An analysis of the features of the manifestation of the epizootic process showed that the anthropogenic factor is the main factor in the spread and maintenance of the ASF epizootic. The geography of disease has differences from vectors (soft ticks) range. Ecological characteristics of the habitat and the density of the wild boar population in the Russian Federation allow to regard ASF in wildlife as a secondary infection, without the potential for independent and long-term continuation. Key words: African swine fever, epidemiological monitoring, geoinformation technologies, risk analysis and assessment.
22 Frolov A.V., Rozhdestvenskaya T.N., Ruzina A.V., Pankratov S.V. Basic biosafety for avian influenza
Here given characteristics of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza, issues of etiology, epizootology, clinical manifestations, forms of manifestation and methods of disease control in industrial poultry farming. Described the basic methods of specific prophylaxis and revealed the results of effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against avian influenza in monovalent and associated variants. Key words: avian influenza, low pathogenic avian influenza virus, H9N2, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, diagnostics, specific prophylaxis.
28 Afonyushkin V.N., Donchenko N.A., Koptev V.Yu., Fudi Yang, Barsukova E.N., Kozlova O.S. "Small" biotechnology or farm-oriented biotechnology in veterinary medicine - an analogue of personalized medicine
The problem of infectious food safety has escalated in recent years, including due to the restriction of the use of antibiotics, combined with an increase in the number of cases of detection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The purpose of the work – to study the mechanisms for the implementation on the territory of the Russian Federation of systems of anti-epizootic measures using products of small-scale, "small" biotechnology. The use of autogenous vaccines and bacteriophages for the needs of a single farm requires a revision of methodological approaches to the diagnosis of infections. The narrow specificity of the above drugs implies the need to accurately identify the strain/serotype of the infectious agent and confirm its epizootic/epidemic significance, incl. methods of molecular epizootological analysis. Developments using «small, small-scale, biotechnology» aimed at individual farms will complement classical vaccines and antibiotics, diagnostic test systems that do not have sufficient versatility to address a number of new infectious threats to agriculture. On the other hand, the most successful solutions achieved using small-scale biotechnological developments can and should be used for further scaling up in large biotechnological productions for wide use. Key words: autogenous vaccines, bacteriophages, molecular epizootology, small-scale biotechnology.
35 Nikolaev S.V., Romanenko T.M., Bessolitsyna E.A. Molecular diagnostics and prevalence of hemosporidiosis among reindeer of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug
The aim of the research was to study the prevalence of blood parasitic infestations in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) of the Nenets breed in the region of the Low-Earth tundra. The diagnosis was carried out by light microscopy of stained blood smears, as well as using PCR. The nucleotide sequence of primers for molecular diagnostics was selected using the NCBI database and the AliBee-Multiple alignment Release 3,0 program. Microscopic blood tests (n=49) revealed that anaplasmosis occurs in 10,2 % of animals, and babesiosis in 1,3 %. During PCR diagnostics, anaplasmosis was detected in 14,3 % of deer, babesiosis – 53,1%, and teileriosis – 10,2 %. Coinvasia Babesia spp.+Theileria spp. It was found in 8,2% of deer, Anaplasma spp.+ Babesia spp. in 2,0 %. Anaplasmosis was mainly registered in vazhenok and calves (21,4 %), and to a lesser extent in choirs (11,3 %). Teileriosis was found in 21,4 % of calves and 14,3 % of calves. Choirs were carriers of babesiosis in 72,7 % of cases, calves – 85,7 %, vazhenki – 42,9 %. The parasite carriers had no visualized clinical signs of invasion, and the morphological composition of the blood was characterized only by a lower content of lymphocytes (by 40,7%; P<0,05) compared with non-invasive animals. Thus, hemosporidosis is widespread among reindeer living in the region of the Low-Earth tundra. Key words: anaplasmosis, babesiosis, teileriosis, polymerase chain reaction, reindeer.
39 Nasibov M.N. Study of infection of pigs with esophagostomes and ascarids in Azerbaijan
The article presents the results of research conducted in private pig farms of the Gabala district of the Sheki-Zagatala economic district to study the degree of infection of pigs with esophagostomomas and ascarids depending on the age group and seasons of the year. Stool samples delivered from private pig farms of the Gabala district were subjected to coprological studies. The extensiveness and intensity of infection of various age groups of pigs with esophagostomes and ascarids in different seasons of the year has been established.In spring, pigs of 2 – 6 months of age were not infected with esophagostomes, infection with esophagostomes of pigs of 7 – 12 months of age was 20,0 %, adult livestock – 33,3 %; ascariasis of 2 – 6 month-old pigs – 27,3 %, 7 – 12 months – 10,0 %, adult livestock – 8,3 %; in summer, esophagostomosis in 2 – 6 months – 18,2 %, in 7 – 12 months – 30,0 %, in adult livestock – 50,0 %; ascariasis of pigs 2 – 6 months of age – 45,5 %, 7 –12 months of age 20,0 %, adult livestock – 16,7 %; in autumn, esophagostomosis in 2 – 6 months was 9,1%, in 7 – 12 months – 20,0%, in adult livestock – 41,7 %; ascariasis in 2 – 6 months – 18,2%, in 7 – 12 months – 30,0 %, in adult livestock – 16,7 %; in winter, esophagostomosis and ascariasis were not detected in 2 – 6-month-old pigs, infection with esophagostomosis in 7 – 12 months – 20,0 %, in adult livestock – 25,0 %; ascariasis in 7 – 12 months – 30,0 %, in adult livestock – 8,3 %. During helminthological autopsies of the intestines of slaughtered animals, the intensity of invasion was 3 – 12 copies . Oesophagostomum dentatum and 1 – 8 copies Ascaris suum. Key words: pig, parasite, esophagostomiasis, ascariasis, infection, age, seasons, coprological study.
43 Kashkovskaya L.M., Novikova S.V., Zubarev V.N. Mastigard – a new remedy for the treatment of cows with mastitis
The drug Mastigard showed 90 – 100 % efficiency in various forms of mastitis in cows. At the same time, the course of treatment was significantly reduced, and the productive function was preserved due to the regenerative effect of the drug. Key words: mastitis, cows, levofloxacin, nosiheptide, prednisolone, Mastigard, milk.
48 Plemyashov K.V., Semenov B.S., Kuznetsova T.Sh., Korochkina E.A., Nikitin V.V., Khusainova G.S., Krutikova A.A. Displacement of abomasum in highly productive dairy cows
Food security of the country is an important and priority area of agriculture. The health of animals and the increase in their productive potential form the economic basis for the implementation of the tasks set. The displacement of the abomasum in productive cows leads to a decrease in productivity and untimely premature culling of animals from the herd. 67 cows of the Holsteinized Black-and-White breed were examined with a diagnosis of abomasum displacement from a total population of 1500 heads. The frequency of distribution of left-sided displacement of the abomasum is 925 %, right-sided – 7,5 % of all sick animals. In 77,6 % of heads, clinical signs of the disease appeared in the first 10 days after calving. The highest incidence rate occurs during the winter months. In the surgical treatment of animals, the use of the method with suturing of the pyloric part of the abomasum to the lateral abdominal wall leads to a favorable outcome and preservation of the productivity of the animal. Key words: the dairy cattle, the milk production, the abomasum displacement, the seasonal disorders.
55 Glazunova L.A., Stolbova O.A., Glazunov Yu.V., Nikonov A.A., Zyryanova N.A., Kalugina E.G., Yurchenko A.A., Ustyugova D.A., Mikhailov M.V., Galtseva A.A. Clinical manifestation of gaffa disease in laboratory animals
The article presents the results of studies aimed at describing the main clinical signs indicating a positive biological sample in laboratory animals for alimental-toxic paroxysmal myoglobinuria (ATPM) or Gaffa disease. One of the first signs is a decrease in appetite in animals of experimental groups, which appeared in a third of experimental animals on days 2 – 4, and later was recorded in all animals. At the same time, with a decrease in appetite, a significant decrease in body weight in animals in the experiment by 27,97±5,21% was observed (during the entire experiment). In 93,1% of mice in the experiment, ruffle was observed for the first eight days, 82,76 % noted conjunctivitis with blephoroptosis. "Frog pose" was observed in 72,41 % of all experimental mice. From day 9 to day 14 of observations, the animals took the "shape of a triangle," and also recorded tremors of the head and limbs. The death of mice since the adoption of the "triangle shape" was recorded after 48 – 96 hours. Key words: gaffa disease, alimental-toxic paroxysmal myoglobinuria, clinical signs, laboratory animals.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
62 Tarasova E.Yu., Matrosova L.E., Tanaseva C.A., Semenov E.I. The efficiency of the preventive complex based on the natural mineral halloysite in mixed mycotoxicosis
The article presents the results of studying the effectiveness of a prophylactic complex based on the natural mineral halloysite, methionine, β-glucans, milk thistle meal in T-2, afla- and zearalenontoxicosis in rabbits. Long-term consumption of food containing mycotoxins had a toxic effect, manifested by a violation of the clinical status, mortality, weight loss, changes in organ weight, erythrocyto-leukopenia and thrombocytosis. The prophylactic complex proposed by us mitigated the adverse effects of T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, increased the safety of animals and weakened the toxic effect of mycotoxins. Key words: T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, rabbits, prophylactic complex, halloysite, hematology.
66 Baryshnikova E.I., Senina M.E., Shchelkunova Yu.P. Diagnostics of spring viremia of carp by real time RT-PCR
The article presents the data of complex laboratory diagnostic of spring viremia of carp using methods of classical virology (bioanalysis on fish, virus re-isolation from experimentally infected fish, titration of the virus on sensitive cell culture) as well as methods of molecular biology using a newly developed kit based on Real Time RT-PCR and sequencing. Analytical specificity of the developed kit was evaluated by testing samples from experimentally infected carp fingerlings and yearling carps with spring viremia virus as well as samples hadn`t been contaminated by SVC virus. The analytical sensitivity of the kit was determined by titration of recombinant plasmid DNA containing a fragment of cDNA of the SVC. Key words: spring viraemia of carp, Real-Time RT-PCR, diagnostic of fish viral diseases, aquaculture.