3 Lunitsin A.V., Gogin A.E. African horse sickness and its epidemic in Thailand
African horse sickness (AHS) is a dangerous infectious non-contagious, arthropod-borne disease that affects the Equidae family with high mortality in horses. Emerging of the disease is always associated with serious consequences for the horse breeders, especially if it occurs for the first time. According to OIE (WAHIS), over the last five years, AHS outbreaks have been reported mainly in African countries: Mozambique, Cameroon, Chad, Swaziland, South Africa and Ethiopia. In South Asia, the last outbreak of AHS has been registered more than 50 years ago. In March 2020, it was emerged in horses in Thailand posing a serious problem now for horse keepers and veterinary services, both at the national and regional levels. The occurrence of AHS in Thailand is an example of the current trend in emerging diseases: active improperly controlled movements of animals and the presence of risk factors (vectors and others) can lead to the introduction and rapid spread of a dangerous exotic disease. This paper provides basic information about the disease itself and its epizootological features, as well as the circumstances of the occurrence and spread of AHS in the Kingdom of Thailand, which makes us to reconsider the risks of its introduction to other countries of the region. Key words: African horse sickness, epizootology, virus circulation, Thailand.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
9 Sokolova O.V., Shkuratova I.A., Drozdova L.I., Halturina L.V. Pathological changes in the mother–placenta–fetus system in cows with chlamydia
In this studies morphological features in the mother-placenta-fetus system in spontaneous abortions associated with Chlamydophila abortus presented. The purpose of the research is to study some mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the infectious process in chlamydia in cows. When diagnosing the causative agent of chlamydia, the ELISA method was used. Histological studies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and internal organs of aborted fetuses were performed using conventional methods. Morphological and functional signs of the development of chronic placental insufficiency during intrauterine infection of Chl. abortus: damage to chorionic villi, focal or extensive necrotic changes in the tissues of the placenta with the deposition of salts in the necrotic areas, damage to the vascular endothelium with signs of microcirculatory disorders. In the internal organs of the fetus, signs of inflammation and hypersensitivity of the body, increased vascular permeability and damage to the walls of blood vessels at the level of the microvasculature have been established. When infected with Chl. abortus a characteristic feature was revealed – the presence of mesh structures with a basophilically colored crumbly substance in the placenta and umbilical cord. Key words: chlamydia, pathomorphological signs, cattle, placental barrier, fetus
13 Brylina M.А., Brylina V.Е. Mycotoxin eliminator efficacy against non-polar mycotoxins
The present article describes the effect of non-polar mycotoxins on chickens and turkeys, describes the existing measures against mycotoxicosis in poultry and analyzes their effectiveness. The last data of an experimental study is showed in the article, which concerns to the effect of zearalenone on egg production, fertility and the state of the immune organs of breeder flock, as well as the effectiveness of mycotoxin neutralization by a mycotoxin eliminator. Key words: mycotoxins, neutralization, biotransformation, ELITOX, egg production, zearalenone, fertility, poultry mycotoxicosis.
17 Illarionova T.V., Kokurina Yu.S., Rybkina N.V., Sulimenko A.А., Psareva E.K. Animals infected with bacteria of the genus Listeria as a potential listeriosis source to humans
This review article contains data on microorganisms of the genus Listeria that are capable of causing infectious disease listeriosis in humans and animals. Reports of outbreaks of listeriosis in humans and animals have been documented in different parts of the world at different times. It is known that in 99 % of cases listeriosis causes L. monocytogenes, but L. ivanovii is no less dangerous. The main reservoir of the pathogen are rodents. Over the past 20 years, L. monocytogenes isolates have been detected during the study of food production objects. Both wild and domestic farm animals, as well as some arthropods and insects, can be carriers of the pathogen. Recently, a rare cutaneous form of listeriosis has been diagnosed in veterinarians, agricultural workers, laboratory employees and people of other animal-related professions. This fact suggests that livestock farms need to be more thoroughly investigated for bacteria of the genus Listeria, to create safe working conditions for workers and to prevent infection with listeriosis in the workplace. Key words: listeriosis, factors of pathogenicity, natural foci, farm animals, modes of transmission.
22 Tsaturyan L.G., Sklyarov O.D., Ivanenko A.A., Fedyushin D.V., Kavanosyan V.V., Kuzmenko M.A., Janjughazyan S.G. Characteristics of bacillus anthracis vaccine strains
Immunization remains an important component of the fight against anthrax. The formation of a post-vaccination immune response correlates with the genetic characteristics of Bac. anthracis vaccine strains, which determine their antigenicity, reactogenicity, and residual virulence, which in turn affect the ability to multiply and persist for a long time in the animal's body, and to form cellular and humoral immunity. Despite the high immunogenicity of the vaccine strains Bacillus anthracis 34F2, 55-Vniivvim, STI-1, 1190-R – Stamatin and Pasteur, the residual virulence of the strain is also important, the degree of which should be taken into account when choosing a strain for the manufacture of vaccines used for the immunization of particularly sensitive animal species, specifically for goats and horses. Key words: anthrax, immunogenicity, vaccine, safety, virulence, protective properties.
27 Sattarova R.S. Lysozyme activity of chicken egg protein when acting on a biofilm formed by bacteria of the genus Moraxella
Bacterial biofilms are found in various infections affecting the eyes, directly on the conjunctiva or in other places of the ocular space. However, there is a little information available about the ability of bacteria of genus Moraxella, some species of which cause eye diseases in cattle, to form a biofilm. In this report, we present research data on the ability of isolates from affected eye tissues of cattle to form a biofilm on various abiotic surfaces in comparison with control strains of Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi under cultivation on artificial nutrient media, and determine the lysing effect of the lysozyme enzyme on biofilms. Key words: biofilm, Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi, reference strains, epizootic cultures.
32 Mineeva O.V. Nematodes of the pike in the Saratov reservoir
The results of a study of the pike nematode fauna of the middle section of the Saratov reservoir are presented. Five species of round worms were identified, two of which (Camallanus lacustris and Hysterothylacium bidentatum) were first recorded for a reservoir predator. The dominant species in the composition of nematode fauna of pike is Raphidascaris acus. Keyword: pike, nematodes, Saratov reservoir.
35 Akbaev R.M., Borets L.S., Generalov A.A. Insecticidal efficiency of powder microcrystalline silica against Felicola subrostratus cat hairs in vitro
The article presents data on the study of the efficacy of microcrystalline silica powder against feline hairs Felicola subrostratus in vitro. This tool has pronounced insecticidal properties, and the original technique used for setting up the experiment is simple and effective. Key words: Felicola subrostratus, felicolez, ectoparasites, powder, research technique, insecticide, microcrystalline silica, cats.
39 Nikolaev S.V., Konopeltsev I.G. Pyometra in cattle: distribution and therapy
Ultrasound sonography in the study of 5250 infertile cows of various breeds found that pyometra on average occurs in 2,2 % of infertile animals. The highest frequency of this pathology was recorded among Hereford cattle (7,2 %), and the lowest among holmogorsky cows (1,4 %). The spread of pathology was facilitated by the lack of regular obstetric and gynecological dispensation of the breeding stock and the imperfection of medical and preventive measures in the dry and postpartum period. It was found that the pyometer in cows showed an increase in the number of white blood cells by 17,2 % (P<0,05), neutrophils by 19,1 %, eosinophils by 6,3 times (P<0,001), a decrease in the number of lymphocytes by 27,1 % (P<0,001), red blood cells by 4,7 % (P<0,05) and platelets by 42,8 % (P<0,05). Immunobiochemical the blood profile was characterized by decreased total protein 11,1% (P<0,001), albumin by 17,5 % (P<0,001), an increase in the concentration of urea 62,9 % (P<0,001), creatinine 23,8 % (P<0,01), activity of AST by 19,4 % (P<0,05), concentration of substances of low and medium molecular weight in erythrocytes 15,4 % (P<0,001), total immunoglobulins by 63,2 % (P<0,001), circulating immune complexes of large size 2,3 times (P<0,001)small size at 98,2 % (P<0,05). The level of progesterone in the blood was 12,28±2,23 nmol/l with a low content of estradiol (<15 ng/l). The most effective method of treatment of cows with pyometra was therapy conducted according to the scheme: presacral blockade according to S.G. Isaev with 0,5 % novocaine solution on the first day, administration of estrophan in a dose of 3,0 ml on the 1st and 11th days, 2 % synestrol solution on the 4th and 14th days, followed by three-fold sanitation of the uterus. This method allowed causing the evacuation of purulent contents from the organ cavity in all animals, followed by fertilization of 50 % of recovered cows. Key words: cows, reproductive function, pyometra, blood biochemical parameters, progesterone, therapy.
43 Shemuranova N.A., Garifullina N.A. Japanese kelp and milk thistle to increase productivity of bulls-sires
The article presents data on the influence of biologically active substances that make up Japanese kelp and milk thistle on the time of manifestation of sexual reflexes of bulls-sires of the Black-and-White Holstein breed. In the process of research, it was found that the use of a new biologically active additive based on these components at a dose of 0,3 g per 1 kg of live weight of bulls for 30 days reduces their total time for the implementation of sexual reflexes by reducing the time for the implementation of the reflex approach, erection and hugging reflex by 49,82 s, and reduces the number of idle jumps before the semen collection by 0,52 times. It was also found that the use of the additive in this dose leads to a reliable increase in the concentration of sperm cells in the ejaculate by 0,84 billion/ml (p<0,001) and an increase in the volume of diluted sperm by 38,46 % (p<0,05), which contributes to obtaining more frozen doses. Key words: Japanese kelp, milk thistle, bulls-sires, sexual reflex, sperm products.
47 Gertman A.M., Samsonova T.S., Kruptsova N.N. Indicators of criminal digestion in cattle with hypocobaltosis
The scientific article presents the results of our own research on the assessment of the state of indicators of rumen digestion in cows against the background of different therapy regimens. At the beginning of the experiment, animals with hypocobaltosis were isolated. In the blood of these cows, normochromic anemia, hypoglycemia, low cobalt content, hypoproteinemia, redistribution dysproteinemia, and hyperuremia were found. These changes indicate the development of catabolic processes in cows with anaerobic oxidation, inhibition of hematopoiesis. When assessing the indicators of cicatricial digestion, a decrease in active acidity, the total amount of volatile fatty acids, the number of ciliates and an elongation of the G. Dirksen test were revealed. For the experiment, 3 groups were formed: in the first – the animals were injected intramuscularly with uberin, in the second – an aqueous solution of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper chlorides, in the third – the combined use of uberin and chloride salts of trace elements. The course of treatment for all experimental cows was 45 days. At the end of the experiment and repeated research, it was found that the best clinical and hematological data and indicators of cicatricial digestion were in the animals of the third experimental group. In these cows, the predominant forms of ciliates in the rumen are mobile medium and large microfauna. Key words: cicatricial digestion, hypocobaltosis, cows.
51 Tanaseva S.A., Ermolaeva О.K., Matrosova L.E., Mukharlyamov A.Z., Semenov E.I. Influence of zeolite and shungite on the content of vitamin A in the body of broiler chickens for mycotoxicosis
In intensive poultry farming, the most economically significant problem is mycotoxicosis, one of the negative consequences of which is a violation of the absorption of the natural antioxidant vitamin A in the digestive tract. The intake of T-2 toxin, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1 was accompanied by a decrease in vitamin A content by 31,2 % in the liver of broiler chickens and its increase in chyme compared to biological control. The addition of a mixture of shungite and zeolite contributed to the accumulation of vitamin A in the liver in broiler chickens consuming natural minerals with the addition of mycotoxins, the vitamin content was 32 % higher relative to the toxic control. The obtained results prove the advantages of a mixture of enterosorbents in an amount of up to 0,5 % of the diet as a means of preventing mycotoxicosis and the absence of their negative effect on the vitamin content in the body of broiler chickens. Key words: broiler chickens, mycotoxicosis, mycotoxins, zeolite, shungite, vitamin A.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
55 Salomatin V.V., Ryadnova T.A., Ryadnov A.A. Effect of the stress-corrector adaptogen Ligfol in combination with the growth-stimulating drug Selenolin on the hematological parameters of young pigs
The effect of the stress-corrector adaptogen Ligfol and the growth-stimulating drug Selenolin on the hematological parameters of hybrid young pigs was studied. Found that the juveniles on the rearing and fattening compared to the control when co-administered in the blood was increased within the physiological norm the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin level; serum – total protein content, albumins, globulins, total lipids, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium, vitamins A, E and C as well as protein index. Key words: young pigs, Ligfol, Selenolin, red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, total protein, albumins, total lipids, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium.
59 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY
60 Index of articles, published in 2020