CONTENTS №12-2021

3 Makarov V.V., Lozovoy M.D., Barsukov Yu.I., Ryzhova D.D. African swine fever in wild boars

The report based on a brief analysis of the published results of foreign studies considers the most significant features of the ASF epizootology among wild boars which largely change archaic knowledge and are of undoubted importance for the practice of control this infection. Particular attention is paid to the carcasses of dead wild boars as a critical factor that determines the continuity of the spatial contact occurrence and spread of the disease in the wild independently of their population density. The determining factors here are the extraordinary persistence of the pathogen outside the body, the topographic localization of carcasses as long-term active infected objects, their detection and neutralization. Key words: African Swine Fever, wild boar, epidemiology.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.03-09

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

10 Ravilov R.Kh., Mingaleev D.N., Efimova M.A., Khisamutdinov A.G., Samerkhanov I.I. Retrospective analysis of animal incidence by rabies in the Republic of Tatarstan

The aim of the work was a retrospective analysis of the results of epizootic control and rabies prevention in the Republic of Tatarstan for 2000 – 2020 years. The epizootic situation of rabies was analyzed using the statistical reporting data of the Rosselkhoznadzor and the State Veterinary Service of the Republic of Tatarstan. In the republic a predominantly natural type of rabies is recorded. The main sources and vectors of rabies are wild dogs: foxes, wolves, raccoon dogs. Their number, habitat, biological and behavioral characteristics determine the frequency, seasonality and nature of the territorial distribution of rabies. Periodic surges in the incidence of rabies are observed every 2 – 3 years, most often in the winter-spring and autumn months of the year. From 1991 to 2015, rabies in the Republic of Tatarstan was recorded at a stable high level and covered almost all regions of the republic (39 out of 43). Planned antiepizootic measures ensure the stabilization of the epizootic situation for this disease. Since 2016, there has been a steady downward trend in the incidence of animal rabies in the Republic of Tatarstan. Key words: rabies, seasonality, periodicity, epizootic situation, agricultural, domestic and wild animals.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.10-15

15 Sazonov A.A., Novikova S.V., Larionova O.S., Kozlov S.V., Drevco Ya.B. Prolonged cephalosporin in a therapy of stretococcal infection in pigs

The article presents data on the effectiveness of a new injectable drug for pigs Ceftonit Forte in the treatment of streptococcal infection in piglets. The study was carried out on the basis of farms in the Saratov region on suckling pigs of a large white breed diagnosed with streptococcosis. It was found that a single treatment of animals with the drug Ceftonit Forte at a dose of 1 ml/40 kg of body weight provides 90% therapeutic efficacy for streptococcosis in piglets after one injection. Key words: pigs, piglets, ceftiofur, Ceftonitis Forte, antibiotic therapy, streptococcosis, therapeutic efficacy.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.15-18

18 Molokanova O.V., Dorofeeva S.G., Sedov S.A., Anosov D.E. Сomplex of essential oils and organic acids to protect the intestines broiler from bacteria

The article presents the results of studying the effectiveness of the natural feed additive PROACTIVE POULTRY when it is introduced into the diet of broiler chickens. This drug, mixed with feed at the rate of 1 kg/t, when applied to poultry from the first day until slaughter, reduced inflammatory reactions in the intestinal mucosa, contributed to the normalization of intestinal microflora, increased the number of lactobacilli and body weight gain of chickens. It is possible that the use of PROACTIVE POULTRY in poultry farming will reduce the use of antibiotics and, accordingly, the risk of developing bacterial resistance to them. Key words: broiler chickens, antibiotics, feed additive.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.18-20

INFECTION DISEASE

21 Engashev S.V., Gusev A.A., Babak V.A. Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination schemes for young birds with live and inactivated vaccines against newcastle disease

In the study presents the results of studying the optimal schemes of immunization of birds with live and inactivated vaccines, which achieve the greatest specific and economic effect. It was found that in herds of birds three times immunized with live vaccine against Newcastle Disease, there is a layer of birds with a low antibody titer (2 – 17 %), which are the most likely risk group susceptible to infection with the pathogenic NB virus. Double immunization of chickens on the 10-th and 15-th days of life by drinking live vaccine against NB strain «La Sota» is the most effective and less time-consuming. Immunization of chickens with an inactivated vaccine carried out on the 30-th day is preferable in comparison with immunization at the age of 50 days, since it allows you to form a tense immunity from an earlier age and is more economical. Key words: infectious diseases, poultry farming, vaccination, chicken priming, transovarial antibodies, humoral immunity, newcastle disease.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.21-24

25 Amirbekov M., Davlatov S.H., Anoyatbekov M., Mirzaev M.N. The study of the efficacy of isatizone and remantadine in the treatment of cattle infected with the Bovine ephemeral fever virus

The results of the studies of the comparative efficacy of the isatizone and remantadine the antiviral drugs against Bovine ephemeral fever are presented in this article. The production tests of medication were conducted on the basis of livestock farms "Barakat" (Yavan district of Khatlon region) and Umed" (district of Republican subordination of Rudaki) of the Republic of Tajikistan. Bovine ephemeral fever is an acute viral vector-borne disease causing great economic damages from the death and forced slaughter of infected animals, decreased productivity, abortion, paralysis and etc. The causative agent of the disease is an RNA virus of the Rhabdoviridae family, whose vectors are blood-sucking insects. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of isatizone and remantadine in the treatment of Bovine ephemeral fever in the conditions of Tajikistan. Followed the obtained results it has been demonstrated that the inside application of isatizone at a 20 mg/kg dose of bodyweight lead to the healing of 80% of cattle infected with Bovine ephemeral fever. It has been determined that the therapeutic efficacy of remantadine is 10% lower under the same treatment conditions. Key words: ephemeral fever, chemotherapy, antiviral drugs, cattle.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.25-29

29 Fedorov A.I., Iskandarov M.I., Iskandarova S.S. Study of compliance of Brucella melitensis strains from the VIEV collection of microorganisms with the requirements for vaccine strains

There is a long history of vaccine prevention of brucellosis in farm animals. Recent years saw a large number of tests of killed and live brucella vaccines with different types and degrees of virulence. Some effective means and methods for the specific prevention of brucellosis have been worked out, but we carry on upgrading live and killed vaccines. As we carried out an anti-brucellosis preventive measures, certain evaluation criteria have developed in relation to vaccines and the strains from which they are made. The essential requirements are stability, immunogenicity and safety. The vaccine strain should not cause the induction of antibodies that interfere with serological diagnosis and be epizootically and epidemiologically safe. They also should not cause abortion, and not induce inflammatory reactions at the injection site. In addition, the vaccine preparation should be processable for industrial production. The article presents the study of the properties of cultures of brucella species B. melitensis and the selection of the most promising as vaccines. Key words: brucellosis, vaccine, immunogenicity, antigenicity, allergenicity.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.29-34

INVASIVE DISEASE

35 Alexeyenkova S.V. The current diagnostic challenges of equid trypanosomoses: nagana, surra and dourine

Equine trypanosomiasis is a complex of infectious diseases caused by several closely related species of trypanosomes. The main problems in controlling equine trypanosomiasis are the lack of vaccines, the inability of drugs to cure the neurological stage of infections, and inaccurate diagnosis. Recent outbreaks of surra and dourine in Europe highlight the risks and consequences of the introduction of trypanosomes with infected horses into non-endemic countries. With the ever-increasing international movement of horses, there is not only a clear need for reliable therapeutic and prophylactic drugs, but also for accurate diagnostic tests and algorithms. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of existing knowledge about the etiology of equine trypanosomiasis and the taxonomic status of pathogens, the geographical distribution of trypanosomes, diagnostic tools, and the problems of differential diagnosis. Methods are proposed for eliminating the limitations of modern diagnostics. Key words: trypanosome, Trypanozoon, horses, nagana, surra, dourine, differential diagnostic.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.35-39

39 Kutlin Yu.N., Mannapov A.G., Gafarova F.M., Gafarov F.A. The preparation Alben for degelmintization of birds

The relevance of the treatment of nematodes in veterinary medicine is due to their global spread. The most pronounced pathogenic effect of nematodoses is in case of malnutrition, which slows down the development of the organism and disrupts the immune status of the population. In general, the immune status is determined by the systems of T and B cells with their subpopulations, nonspecific defense factors, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, and mediators. The practical value of taking into account the T- and B-systems of immunity in the body of animals lies in the ability to assess and carry out a comparative assessment of the state of the immune system in healthy and sick animals. This allows you to identify various shortcomings in the system of immunological surveillance of the body, as well as to carry out a certain correction in terms of restoring existing disorders. The aim of the work was to study the effect of Alben on the content of lymphocytes in the blood of birds in the treatment of nematode invasion. For the experiment, 36 goslings were used. They were selected on the basis of analogs at 30 days of age. The birds were divided into 3 groups of 12 birds each. Patients diagnosed with nematodosis were included in groups 1 and 2, and healthy birds were selected for control groups in group 3. The data obtained in our experiments indicate that deworming by Alben during nematode invasion in geese promotes an increase in helper reactions. The inhibition of suppressive reactions is also clearly traced. In this case, there is no exit of immune reactivity beyond physiological norms. This indicates a fairly high efficiency of the drug Alben for deworming in case of nematode invasion of geese. Key words: geese, lymphocytes, nematode invasion, blood, immunity, resistance

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.39-43

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY

44 Nikolaev S.V. Efficacy of ketosis therapy in dairy cows by intraperitoneal administration of glucose solution

A comparative assessment of intravenous and intraperitoneal glucose administration in the treatment of ketosis in dairy cows was carried out. It was found that a single intravenous injection of 1000 ml of 20 % dextrose during the first 5 minutes is accompanied by an increase in the concentration of monosaccharide in the blood by 2,2 times (from 5,1 to 11,4 mmol/l; P<0,001), the level of which decreases to initial values within 1 hour, and introperitoneal infusion does not cause hyperglycemia. Therapy of cows with ketosis is accompanied by a redistribution of protein fractions: a decrease in the albumin-globulin coefficient by 16,8 % (P<0,05) with intraperitoneal administration and by 26,9% (P<0,01) with intravenous administration. The activity of AsAT in cows after intracavitary dextrose injections decreased by 36,5 % (P<0,05), the loading of red blood cells by 19,4 % (P<0,05), which was not observed with intravascular administration. The morphological composition of blood after intravenous administration of dextrose was characterized by an increase in the level of leukocytes by 34,8 % (P<0,05), a decrease in erythrocytes by 11,9 % (P<0,05), hemoglobin by 11,6 % (P<0,05), hematocrit by 12,3 % (P<0,05), and therapy by intraperitoneal administration did not cause pronounced changes in these indicators. Intraperitoneal administration of dextrose solution was characterized by a slight decrease (by 16,3 %) in the level of β-oxybutyrate a day after the end of therapy, followed by a marked decrease in ketone concentration by day 7 (2,3 times; P<0,01). The dynamics of fructosamine indicates that intracavitary injections do not cause glycosylation of plasma proteins, whereas intravenous infusions contribute to an increase in values by 37,0 – 39,4 % (P<0,001). Thus, the possibility and effectiveness of intraperitoneal glucose administration in ketosis in cows is shown. Key words: cows, ketosis, therapy, glucose, β-oxybutyrate, fructosamine.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.44-49

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE

50 Tuvardzhiev A.V., Kovalev S.P. Prospects for using high-frequency therapy (EHF) in veterinary clinical practice (part 2)

The presented review considers a wide range of animal diseases, in the treatment of which the clinical efficacy of EHF-therapy has been proven. A small number of contraindications, the absence of adverse reactions and good tolerance of this method were noted. It is shown that EHF radiation is well combined with other physical factors of treatment, complements drug therapy, reduces the toxic effect of drugs, increases the effectiveness of treatment and reduces its cost. Key words: extremely high frequency therapy, millimeter waves, free therapy.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.50-55

56 Aliev A.A., Karpushchenko K.A., Aliev A.Yu. Efficiency of application of briquette-lunts for prevention of macro- and microelements of cows in the conditions of Dagestan Republic

The article provides information about the effective use of briquette-lick Amirasol R(C)-Z in the diets of dairy cows. Scientific and economic experiment was carried out in the Tarumovsky district of Dagestan Republic. The inclusion of Amirasol R(C)-Z in the feeding ration in the autumn-winter period had a positive effect on the indicators of mineral metabolism in the blood of the experimental group of cows, as well as improving the indicators of milk productivity, milk fat content, morbidity in cows and calves. So, at the end of the experiment the concentration of Na, Mg, Ca, P in the blood serum of the experimental group of cows increased on 16,07, respectively; 19,44; 13.46; 35,88 %; trace elements in the blood – Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Se, I (SBI) – on 27,90; 89,18; 61,66; 128,74; 66,66; 101,80 and 81,93 %, and the concentration of potassium decreased on 8,93 %, compared with the control group. Key words: cows, blood, briquette-lick Amirasol R(C)-Z, macro-and microelementoses, diselementoses, prophylactic effectiveness.

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.24.12.56-59

60 lndex of articles, published in 2021

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CONTENTS №12-2021