3 Glotov A.G., Glotova T.I. Cattle salmonellosis on big dairy farms (Review. P.1)
New data on the role of the Salmonella dublin in the diseases of cattle on big dairy farms presented. The ability to establish a life-long infection in animals with asymptomatic carriage, periods of bacteremia and excretion of the pathogen to the environment creates problems during the control measures. The bacterium virulency depends on the presence of the plasmid Spv. The presence of this gene increases the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and contributes to the emergence of resistant strains and genetic transmission between different serotypes leads to the circulation of highly virulent strains of S. dublin and S. typhimurium in animals. Calves up to six months and adult animals are suspective in which the bacterium causes enteritis, systemic form of infection leading to the arthritis, encephalitis, pneumonia and abortions. The infection is enzootic and manifested cyclically. The stationarity maintained by bacteria carriers that release the causative agent at a concentration of up to 1014 CFU/g Salmonella per day with feces and 102/ml – 105/ml with milk and colostrum. The causative agent has common target organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory tracts and the reproductive system of animals with viruses and the common pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the similarity of clinical and pathological signs of diseases that impede the differential clinical diagnosis, planning and effectiveness of control measures. The first part presents and discusses current information about the causative agent of infection, epidemiological data and the pathogenesis of the disease. Key words: cattle, big dairy farms, Salmonella Dublin, bacteriocarriers, clinical signs, differential diagnostics, preventive measures.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
8 Kochish I.I., Smolensky V.I., Nuraliev E.R., Kochish O.I. Complex program for ensuring biological safety of commercial egg layer poultry farms
The authors give a scientific substantiation of the effectiveness of complex application of disinfectants of new generation, means for disinfection of drinking water, destruction of insects, mites and helminths in industrial poultry farms of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. On the basis of the conducted researches the complex program of veterinary and sanitary prevention adapted to conditions of poultry farms of the egg direction allowing to increase technological and economic indicators of results is offered. The implementation of the program allowed to significantly limit or completely abandon the use of antibiotics and other medicines, which had a positive impact on the quality of products, their cost and profitability. Key words: industrial poultry farming, disinfection, pest control, deacarization, deworming, commercial result.
14 Sibgatullova A.K., Nefedeva M.V., Kudryashov D.A., Vlasov M.E., Titov I.A. Analysis of genetic markers of variability of African swine fever virus isolates isolated in the Russian Federation
African swine fever is a viral contagious disease of wild boars and domestic pigs. The disease causes significant economic impact to the pig-breeding industry of the Russian Federation, there are no specific measures of prevention for this disease. An effective vaccine that allows to create protective immunity in animals has not yet developed. As a result of the studies performed, the nucleotide sequences were obtained and a phylogenetic analysis of B602L; EP402R; I73R / I329L marker genes was carried out for genotyping of ASF strains. Key words: African swine fever virus; genotyping, sequencing, marker genes, multigene families, phylogenetic analysis.
20 Gafarova I.E., Lisitsina E.S., Savochkina Yu.A., Kirillova N.V., Chernova S.V., Berens T.T., Ilinа E.N. Development of real time PCR for the detection of Bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA
In this article, we present data on the development of real time PCR for the detection of proviral DNA Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in samples of blood. We used 140 whole blood samples of cows for this study. All analyzed samples were tested in agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). To assess the quality of real time PCR were used parameters: linearity, efficiency, precision, analytical sensitivity and specificity. This assay proved to be highly analytical sensitivity (500 copies/ml), specificity (100 %) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation of the results is 1,3 %). The effectiveness of the method is 99,95 %. The results obtained indicate that this method is suitable as a routine laboratory test for the detection of proviral DNA BLV in whole blood samples of cows. Key words: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), proviral DNA.
27 Ryabchikova E.I., Filipenko M.L., Afonyushkin V.N., Homenko Yu.S. Something about a role of electron microscopy in timely detection of a new infections in farm animals and birds in Russian Federation
The use of molecular diagnostics methods for infectious diseases of farm animals and poultry has greatly simplified the diagnosis of viral infections. However, the reduction of traditional methods of diagnosis of viral infections, such as electron microscopy, histopathological studies, significantly worsened the possibility of detecting new infections. This paper summarizes the results of electron microscopic studies of samples of the biomaterial of birds and pigs, which have been studied when appearance of new nosologies. Cases of detection of viral particles with the morphological characteristics of flaviviruses, coronaviruses, rhabdoviruses, astroviruses, circoviruses, etc., are described, with subsequent analysis of the role of detected virus particles in the development of pathologies. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of molecular diagnostics of infections and methods of electron microscopy of biomaterial samples suggests that the availability of a workable electron microscopy laboratory in each major region of the Russian Federation is a key element for the initial detection of new infections. Key words: electron microscopy, emergent infections of birds and pigs, flaviviruses, parvoviruses, rhabdoviruses, pathoanatomical monitoring.
32 Vasilevich F.I., Zinovieva O.E., Kuplich V.M. Ecological and biological features of blood-sucking midges (Diptera: simuliidae) in the Central non-Chernozem zone of Russia
In water streams of the central nonchernozem zone of Russia larvae and pupae of 25 kinds of midges from 10 genus develop 20 from them are registered as bloodsuckers. The most active and widespread bloodsucking animals are B. chelevini (ID 26,1, IO=75,0), B. erythrocephala (ID=16,6, IO=68,0), S. pusilla (ID=13,7, IO=58,0), S. promorsitans (ID=13,2, IO=64,5), S. nigra (ID=9,9, IO=46,0). Key words: bloodsuckers, running water, larva, pypa, imago.
38 Safiullin R.T., Chalysheva E.I., Krasnobayev Yu.V. Virukill 260 preparation efficiency against oocyst Eimeria spp. birds
The effectiveness of different concentrations of the drug Virukill 260 was tested in comparison with the recommended concentration of Phenol against sporulated coccidia oocysts in broiler chickens from 14 days of age. The intensity of Virukilla 260 in a 0,5 % concentration against sporulated bird Eimeria spp. oocysts was 94,15 %, in a 1 % concentration – 97,6 % and in a 2 % concentration 98,17 %. The drug taken as a base, phenol 4 %, showed an 88,75 % intensity efficacy against Eimeria oocysts. Chickens of the infected control, which were prescribed sporulated coccidia oocysts at a dose of 2000 per 1 ml of the given suspension, at the time of research, a large number of oocysts were excreted with feces and the average number of oocysts in 1 g of litter was 64880 specimens. The productivity of these chickens was 26,58 % lower compared to uninfected broilers. Key words: chickens, coccidioses, oocysts, artificial infection, coproscopy, Darling method, Mac Masters camera, Virukill 260, Phenol, intensification.
43 Uroševic M., Vucinic M., Sahinović R., Drobnjak D. The impact of gonadotropic hormones on rabbit service period and litter size
The results of a three-fold experiment held on 300 rabbits showed that the use of pregnant mare scrum and Folligone improves their reproductive performance (reduced duration of pregnancy and service period, increased fertility, as well as survival of the offspring). Key words: hormones, rabbits, reproduction, pregnant mare scrum, Folligon.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
47 Tyrin V.G., Mysova G.A., Biryukov K.N., Potemkina N.N., Kochish O.I., Krotkov A.S. Granulated organomineral fertilizers prolonged action from animal wastes
There were studied the sanitary and bacteriological characteristics of granulated organic-mineral fertilizer from animal waste. It was established that drying and granulating a mixture of mineral substances with manure and other organic components (sawdust, straw) allows obtaining fertilizer of prolonged action that meets the requirements of current regulatory documents. Key words: animal waste, organic fertilizer, sanitary and bacteriological state.
50 Kulach P.V., Shopinskaya M.I., Nityaga I.M., Zakharov A.V. Study of the disinfecting activity of the Vapusan 2000R preparation in the disinfection of the refrigerating chambers of a meat processing enterprise
The article presents data on the study of the disinfectant activity of the drug Vapusan 2000R in the disinfection of the refrigerating chambers of a meat processing enterprise. During the study in the refrigerator high contamination of walls and floor with mold spores was revealed, which is a consequence of violation of the requirements of the current sanitary rules for refrigerators, including the mode of operation of the chambers. It was found that the drug Vapusan 2000R when disinfected in a room with a low temperature above minus 11,9 0C in a concentration of 1% and an exposure of 1 hour has a pronounced disinfection activity against fungi and yeast. Key words: disinfection, refrigerating chambers, meat processing enterprise, mold fungi.
54 Troshin E.I., Shuvalova L.A., Shirobokova T.A., Vasiliev Yu.G. The effect of LED radiation on the productivity of dairy cows
For the first time, studies on the effect of the radiation of LED lamps on the productivity of dairy cows of the black-and-white breed were conducted on the basis of OOO Nazar of the Agryz district of the Republic of Tatarstan. For the illumination, 85-watt compact fluorescent lamps were used in the control group, and an experimental 18-watt LED lamp was used in the experimental group. Studies have shown that the average air temperature in the barn was 10,16±1,78 0C, the relative humidity exceeded the permissible values by 13,1 %, the speed of air movement almost twice the hygienic requirements. The length of daylight hours was 16 hours. The average illuminance at the level of the feeder was 31,57±11,52 lux, which also does not meet the zoohygienic requirements. The light coefficient in the room is 3 times lower than normal and amounted to 1:37. The research results showed that during the experiment, the average daily milk yield of experimental cows increased by 3,54 % and amounted to 10,7±0,2 kg, while in the control group it increased only by 0,67 % and, accordingly, amounted to 10,45±0,19 kg, which is statistically significant (P<0,95). On average, for the entire study period, the content of mass fraction of fat in the milk of the control group was 3,56±0,04 %, and in the experimental group – 3,60±0,03 %. The content of the mass fraction of protein, SOMO and the density of milk almost did not change. According to the physiological status for the entire period of experience, all the cows were clinically healthy. The assessment of economic efficiency showed that in the experimental group the milk yield of cows increased, on average, by 3,54 % or 0,37 kg, and in the control group – only by 0,67 % or 0,07 kg. At the same time, the cost of electricity for the production of one liter of milk in the experimental group amounted to 6,72 rubles, while in the control group – 32,53 rubles. Key words: LED light sources, milking cows, productivity, milk yield, fat mass fraction, mass fraction of protein, hematological blood parameters, economic efficiency.
57 Baryshev V.A., Popova O.S., Rogacheva E.V. New aspects of treatment calves with diarrhea
2 groups (30 goals each) of 2 – 3 month old calves with diarrhea were formed in one of the farms of the Leningrad region to study the therapeutic effect of the new phytosorbtion complex. The average weight of the experimental group at the beginning of the experiment was 79,2±8,53 kg, and the control one – 81,6±9,42 kg. Phytosorbtion complex in a dose of 120 g/animal (1,5 g/kg body weight) were given to animals of the experimental group orally. The antidiarrhea drug at a dose of 100 g was given to control calves according to the scheme adopted in the farm. There were registrated in the calves of the experimental group the increase in the blood count of erythrocytes by 12,97 %, hemoglobin concentration by 22,55 %, glucose by 15,18 % and total protein by 2,63 %, as well as phagocytic activity by 10,42 %, bactericidal activity by 3,07 % and lysozyme activity by 34,15 % on the background of a decrease in the number of leukocytes by 14,81 % in comparison with control. Thus, the use of the phytosorbtion complex provided a high therapeutic effect by reducing intoxication and eliminating the inflammatory process in the body of calves with diarrhea. Key words: bactericidal activity, hemoglobin, glucose, diarrhea, leukocytes, lysozyme activity, blood count, calves, phagocytic activity, complete erythrocytes.
60 Kadikov I.R., Biktashev R.U., Konyukhova V.A., Papunidi K.H., Zakirova G.Sh., Gubeeva E.G. Use of shungite and zeolite in chicken-broiler diets
The paper contains data on productivity of cross Kobb-500 chicken-broilers at phone of fodder contamination by 0,5 MPC cadmium and 0,5 MPC lead and using shungite and zeolite as separately so in combinative correlation 1:1 in doses 0,25 % and 0,5 %. Newness of investigation is high dispersity (1 – 6 mkm) of applied sorbents. Biochemical indexes of serum, concentration of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, ferrum, manganese, cobalt, nickel in liver and muscle tissue of broilers are presented. Established that dose 0,25 % of shungite and zeolite to mass of fodder is insufficient and does not provide bird organism protection of cadmium and lead influence. Use of sorbents as separately so combinatively in dose 0,5 % provides achievement of productivity of broilers from biological control group. Introduction of 0,5 % shungite into basic diet (without heavy metals contamination) promotes increase of broilers productivity to 10,2 % comporativly with biological control. Use of zeolite ib such a dose does not give similar effect. Key words: chicken-broilers, diets, cadmium, lead, shungite, zeolite, liver, muscles, blood.