3 Glotov A.G., Glotova T.I., Nefedchenko A.V., Koteneva S.V. Respiratory diseases of imported cattle in period of adaptation at big dairy units
The results of a study of outbreaks of respiratory diseases in imported livestock after delivery to two big dairy units in Russia depending on the presence or absence of previous vaccination in the exporting country, the introduction of antibiotics, the duration of transportation, and the country of origin. The animals were brought to the farm № 1 from North America and to the second – from Europe. The morbidity and mortality of animals in the surveyed farms were at approximately the same level, regardless of the listed factors. The mortality of calves under 4 months of age in farm № 1 was 39 %, and in farm № 2 – 32,4 %. At the farm № 2, diarrhea was additionally recorded in calves up to 30 days of age. Respiratory diseases manifested themselves as fibrinous pneumonia. The spectrum of etiological agents in the two farms was approximately the same and included viruses: BVDV, BHV-1, BHV-4, BRSV and PI-3, bacteria: P. multocida, M. haemolytica, H. somni, and S. dublin, but had some quantitative differences. In farm № 1, the viral diarrhea virus was more often detected with the maximum number of positive samples in stillborn calves and abortions, 66,7 % and 50 %, respectively. Perhaps, in this farm intrauterine infection due to acute or persistent infection of heifers played an important role in the occurrence of mass pneumonia in calves. Vaccination of animals with unknown status in relation to viral infections in the exporting country, the introduction of antibiotics in the presence of long-term transportation do not prevent outbreaks of respiratory diseases in the importing country. The conclusion is made about the importance of respiratory diseases for dairy cattle breeding when importing highly productive heifers. Key words: imported livestock, heifers, dairy complexes, vaccination, transportation, calves, respiratory diseases, viruses, bacteria.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
9 Makavchik S.A. Rational pharmacotherapy of animals with the basis of ranking antimicrobial drugs in veterinary laboratories
We propose to carry out laboratory control over the antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms in veterinary laboratories using the ranking of antimicrobial drugs.According to the draft Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation "On the approval of the List of medicinal products intended for the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases of animals caused by pathogenic microorganisms and opportunistic microorganisms, in respect of which restrictions are imposed on the use for medicinal purposes, including for the treatment of farm animals "antimicrobial drugs are divided into groups: the first choice - group C (active substances of drugs that are used to treat infectious and parasitic diseases of animals caused by pathogenic microorganisms and opportunistic microorganisms); the second choice is group B (active ingredients of medicinal products that are used in veterinary medicine and medicine). Group A drugs are prohibited drugs in veterinary medicine. However, it is necessary to limit, but not prohibit, clinically important antibiotics for veterinary medicine that fall into group A, or create a group of antimicrobial reserve for different species and ages of animals, bees, birds, taking into account their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, show a systematic approach and keep the drugs in demand. Currently, veterinary medicine cannot abandon the use of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of infectious animal diseases without risking significant losses in the production of meat, dairy and other products. Key words: ranking of antibiotics, mechanisms of resistance, antibiotic resistance, microbiological methods, pharmacotherapy, animals.
15 Vlasov M.E., Lyska V.M., Pivova E.Yu., Kudryashov D.A., Sibgatulova A.K., Guzalova A.G., Balyshev V.M. Biological properties of African and classical swine fever viruses isolated in the Amur region, and their reproductive activity in case of mixed infection
The report represents data on the biological properties of African and classical swine fever viruses isolated in the Amur Region in 2019, which are certified and deposited in the FRCVM State Collection of Microorganisms. Their reproductive activity levels as observed in cell cultures SL and PK-15 at mono- or mixed infection are analysed. Simultaneous infection of the SL cells with the African and classical swine fever viruses resulted in the ASF virus prevalence at successive passages 2 to 7 depending on the virus infective dose used. Also, some results of the research work are given carried out earlier in SSI NRIVVaMR on mixed infection of pigs with the above pathogens at their contact passages in pigs, in which the development of African or classical swine fever monoinfection was observed depending both on the virus infective dose and its virulence. These results should be taken into account when carrying out diagnostic and/or surveillance studies in the regions where both African and classical swine fever are registered. Key words: African swine fever, virus, classical swine fever, cell cultures, pathogenicity, mixed infection.
22 Shishkova N.A., Marinin L.I., Tyurin E.A., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A. Theoretical and practical aspects of safe production of sterile DNA preparations Bacillus anthracis for genetic research
Nucleic acid extraction plays an important role in molecular biology as a primary stage for many subsequent studies. The difficulties of isolating DNA from B. anthracis are associated not only with the complexity of the process of isolating high-quality DNA, but also with the safety of working with this pathogen. The main problem in molecular biological and genetic research is, as a rule, the need to perform all studies with live B. anthracis bacteria and non-inactivated genetic material in BSL 3 level biosafety rooms when transferring B. anthracis genetic material (including DNA thermolysates, protein preparations) from isolated laboratories of BSL 3 level to basic laboratories of BSL 2 level for further study. A technique for isolating sterile DNA has been developed, which includes several stages and allows to achieve sterility of the drug. Key words: anthrax, nucleic acids, genetic research, biosafety.
30 Yartsev S.N., Melnik R.N., Melnik N.V., Makletsova E.A., Kolpikova O.A., Zakharova E.M., Sussky E.V., Kolesnichenko I.S. Optimization for production of hyperimmune serum against animal necrobacillosis and its effectiveness
The article describes modern methods of industrial production of hyperimmune serum against animal necrobacteriosis. For specific prophylaxis and treatment of necrobacteriosis, we have developed a hyperimmune serum against necrobacteriosis in animals. Serum, administered parenterally, induces the formation of passive immunity in animals to F. necrophorum lasting 1 – -14 days. The aim of these studies was to study the effectiveness of hyperimmune serum against necrobacteriosis of animals in conditions of farms unfavorable for necrobacteriosis. Key words: necrobacteriosis, vaccine, technology, treatment, antibody titers, epizootic situation, hyperimmune serum.
37 Plemyashov K.V., Stekolnikov А.А., Nikitin I.N., Gavrilenko N.N., Leontyev L.B. Prevention of the reproductive system diseases of cows
This article is devoted to the development of a mathematical calculation method for predicting the pathology of reproductive function in cows and implementing recommendations for the use of adequate preventive measures. The cows of Kholmogory breed at the age of 3 – 6 years; live weight of 500 – 550 kg and an average annual milk production of 4500 kg were selected as the object of study. The analysis was carried out on the basis of three main indicators: lactation cycle, dry period and infertility duration, according to which the animals were divided into five groups. By means of mathematical calculations we derived the following indices for each of the groups: lactation cycle indices are 1,0; 0,70; 0,70; 0,55, and 0,44 respectively; dry period indices are 1,0; 0,5; 0,5; 0,40; 0,58 respectively; infertility duration indices are 1,0; 0,75; 0,67; 0,51, and 0,53 respectively. Based on these indices, we have also calculated an average index for each of the five groups: the first group has average index equals to 1.0; the second group has average index equals to 0,82; the third group average index is 0,62; the fourth group average index is 0,48; and the fifth group average index is 0,13. The use of this technique made it possible to analyze and develop 4 degrees of readiness of specialists for giving birth to cows. The first degree of readiness supposes a conditionally favorable outcome of labor in cows. The second degree of readiness assumes selective monitoring of the course of labor and taking preventive measures according to the indications of obstetric research. The third degree of readiness implies to take preventive measures. The fourth degree recommends to take preventive and therapeutic measures. Key words: cow, reproductive system, pathology of the reproductive system, forecasting, prevention.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
41 Tyurin V.G., Mysova G.A., Potemkina N.N., Kochish O.I., Biryukov K.N. Sanitary and bacteriological condition of organomineral compostbased on animal waste
The article presents the results of microbiological studies that characterize the survival of various groups of sanitary-indicative microorganisms in organic compost based on animal waste, depending on the level of mineral components. Mixing the mineral components of urea and formalin in a compost mixture based on organic animal waste in an amount of 0,3 % of its volume ensures inactivation of the sanitary-indicative microflora after 12 hours of exposure. Key words: organomineral compost, survival rate, disinfection, sanitary-indicative microflora, urea, formalin.
44 Yakubik O.L., Litvinova Z.A. Microbial contamination of industrial poultry objects
The article presents the results of microbiological studies of industrial poultry farming objects: samples of compound feed, crushed shells, wheat grain, water, as well as washings from inventory and equipment. It has been determined that a certain amount of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, which can be in the air in the form of aerosols, can get into feed, water, poultry care items, as well as equipment every day. The main sources of air pollution in poultry farms can be the presence of droppings and free-living birds on their territory. In this regard, the purpose of our research was to study the species and quantitative composition of microorganisms at the objects of industrial poultry farming. Microbiological analysis of feed, water, washings from inventory and equipment, with which poultry can come into contact, has been carried out and described. Samples of biomaterial for research were taken on the territory of poultry farms in the Amur Region. The species composition and properties of isolated microflora were studied using the methods of general microbiology. As a result of the research, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the isolated microorganisms were studied and described, and the identified microflora was analyzed. In the course of microbiological analysis of objects of poultry farms, six genera of world organisms were identified: Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Mucor, Staphylococcus, Aspergillus. It was found that Escherichia coli – 42,4 %, Pseudomonas aeroginosa – 20,2 %, Staphylococcus aureus – 17,1%, Enterococcus faecalis – 12,1 % are often isolated in the studied samples. Microscopic fungi Aspergillus flavus – 5,1%, Mucor – 3,1 % were detected less often. The highest degree of microbial contamination was revealed in samples of wheat grain, crushed shells, and washings from inventory and equipment. Of all the isolated cultures, one species of microorganisms Escherichia coli – 9 (9,1 %) – possessed pathogenic properties for laboratory animals. Key words: microflora, poultry, feed, inventory, equipment, sanitary, microbiological state.
48 Batov I.V., Nekrasov D.Yu., Zhedulov A.E., Mamedova E.I., Sukhova T.M., Gracheva T.S., Sorokin A.V., Nesterenko I.S., Kish L.K. Determination of nitrovin, 4-nitrophenolate and nifurstyrenate residues in livestock products using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection
Sodium nifurstyrenate and nitrovin belong to the group of antibacterial nitrofurans widely used for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections in fish. The drugs have a significant antibacterial effect against E. coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and other microorganisms. In the Russian Federation, these compounds are not allowed in the raising livestock and aquaculture. Sodium nitrophenolate is a plant growth promoter. It is included in the list of growth promoters registered in the Russian Federation («State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Approved for use in the territory of the Russian Federation», 2021). The developed methods for the nifurstyrenate, nitrovin, and nitrophenolate determination have either limited specificity or limited sensitivity. Except of the safety of livestock raw materials provision primarily, the substances included in the export requirements of countries-importers control in domestic food is needed, among them nifurstyrenate, nitrovin, nitrophenolate, because of the development of agricultural export. Chromatographic conditions and parameters of mass-spectrometric detection, as well as methods for the sample’s preparation for HPLC-MS/MS analysis, were optimized in this work. As a result, a sensitive and selective method for the residues of nitrovin, 4-nitrophenolate and nifurstyrenate in livestock products determination was developed and its metrological verification was carried out. The developed method is specific and allows to determine the analytes in samples of meat and meat products, fish, offal, eggs and egg products, milk and dairy products, and honey in the range from 1 to 500 ug/kg for 4-nitrophenolate, nifurstyrenate and from 5 to 500 ug/kg for nitrovin. Key words: nitrovin, 4-nitrophenolate, nifurstyrenate, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass-spectrometric detection, solid-phase extraction.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
58 Konovalova G.V., Lobova P.S., Gritsuk V.A., Morozova A.V., Tokar V.V. Specifics of planning and conducting preclinical studies of medicinal products for veterinary use
The main goal of preclinical studies of veterinary medicinal products is to obtain scientifically substantiated and reliable information about their safety, which makes it possible to give an objective assessment of the risks and benefits ratio while using medications for the treatment and prevention of animal diseases. This paper highlights a number of the most common problems associated with toxicological studies of veterinary medicines, the specifics of regulatory control in the Russian Federation and the differences between Russian and international requirements in this area. Preclinical studies should not include unnecessary experiments, but at the same time ensure that the information about safety of the medicinal product is sufficient. To harmonize the requirements, international terms and definitions should be accurately verified with their equivalents in the Russian regulatory framework, avoiding a formal approach for preclinical studies evaluation during Marketing Authorization procedure in the Russian Federation. Key words: preclinical studies (PCS), Marketing Authorization, toxicological studies, general toxicity, subchronic toxicity, tolerance, local tolerance, veterinary medicines.