CONTENTS №6-2022

3 Orlyankin B.G., Vlasova A.N., Mukhin A.N., Aliper T.I. Coronavirus infections in animals: vaccines and vaccination

The article examines the specific prophylaxis of common coronavirus infections of swine, cattle, poultry, cats and dogs. Live, inactivated and recombinant vaccines are reviewed, as well as different vaccination strategies relying on such products. Key words: coronaviruses, vaccines, vaccination, animals.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.6.03-07 

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

8 Burova O.A., Zakharova O.I., Toropova N.N., Iashin I.V., Blokhin A.A.  Bluetongue: epidemic situation in the world and Russia (review)

Bluetongue is a non-contagious disease of ruminants caused by a virus from the Orbivirus genus, Reoviridae family, that affects domestic and wild ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes and deer. At least 31 serotypes of bluetongue virus are known to exist. Clinically the disease manifests in sheep and cattle. Other domestic ruminants are usually asymptomatic. Laboratory methods are used to make a diagnosis. The antibody detection method – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is especially relevant when examining imported unvaccinated livestock. Epizootic risks caused by the vector-borne transmission of the bluetongue virus are associated with the flying season of insects, as well as the expansion of their range due to global warming. In addition, the epizootic situation in Russia confirms that the import of infected livestock is an important factor of the spread of bluetongue. Control of the spread of bluetongue should be based on compliance with quarantine measures for imported imported livestock, the use of vaccination, especially in endemic areas, and systematic monitoring studies. Key words: emergent disease, bluetongue, new serotypes, vectors-born, spread, prevention.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.6.08-15

15 Koba I.S., Kashkovskaya L.M. Long-acting macrolide in the treatment of calves with respiratory syndrome

The article presents data on the efficiency of the new drug Tulatrin for the treatment of calves with respiratory infections. The study was carried out on calves with a mixed bacterial infection (Pasteurella haemolytica, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma bovis). It has been proven that Tulatrin has been 100% therapeutic efficacy. Recovery of calves occurs on the 5th day after a single injection. Key words: respiratory infection, calves, Tulatrin, tulathromycin, efficacy, treatment.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.6.15-18 

INFECTION DISEASE

20 Pchelnikov A.V., Yatsentyuk S.P.  Bovine herpesvirus type 6

Bovine herpesvirus type 6 (BoHV-6) belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily of the genus Macavirus, which includes viruses that are tropic to the lymphoid cells of ruminants. The virus was first isolated in 1972 in the USA from cattle with lymphosarcoma. In the first years after the discovery, this pathogen wasn’t interested to researchers. The situation has changed in the last 20 years. The virus was detected almost simultaneously in cattle in many countries of the world: USA (1998), Great Britain (2008), Canada (2010), Belgium (2013), Poland (2013), Russia (2013), New Zealand (2014). Moreover, different researchers detected BoHV-6 both from clinically healthy cattle of different sex and age groups, and from animals with various pathologies. The results of the studies made it possible to understand that the virus is ubiquitous among cattle and is most likely not associated with any particular disease. Nevertheless, the facts of detection of the pathogen in animals with pathologies of the reproductive system, udder pathologies, from animals with bovine leukemia made researchers think about the mechanisms of transmission of the virus and, most importantly, about its etiological role in the structure of infectious pathology of cattle. This article summarizes the results of the work carried out by various researchers in terms of studying the etiological and pathogenic role of BoHV-6 in the infectious pathology of cattle, considers a number of theories most discussed in the world scientific literature, presents the author's own opinion. Key words: bovine herpesvirus type 6, gamma- herpesviruses, cattle.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.6.20-24 

25 Mukhametova L.I., Eremin S.A., Zherdev D.O., Sklyarov O.D., Babicheva О.V., Bezgin V.M., Bykova N.N. Diagnosis of brucellosis by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay

Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals recommends the use of four serological tests to rule out brucellosis in international animal trade: the buffered Brucella antigen tests (rose bengal test and buffered plate agglutination test), the complement fixation test (CFT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA). The first three methods are widely used in the Russian Federation, but FPA is not currently studied. The paper assesses the possibility of using FPA to detect brucellosis antibodies in the blood serum of cattle. A fluorescently labeled oligosaccharide obtained from B. abortus and B. melitensis was used as an antigen in FPA. It has been shown that the fluorescence polarization signal increases in proportion to the content of antibodies in positive sera. The results confirm the possibility of using FPA to detect antibodies against bacteria of the genus Brucella. Key words: fluorescence polarization, diagnostics, brucellosis, oligopolysaccharide.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.6.25-30 

INVASIVE DISEASE

31 Suntsova O.V., Lisak O.V., Doroschenko E.K., Savinova Yu.S., Kozlova I.V., Rar V.A., Tikunov A.Yu., Meltsov I.V. Equine piroplasmosis in the Irkutsk region: etiological agents, infection of horses, distribution

Equine piroplasmosis is a natural focal, transmissible infection caused by protozoan hemoparasites: Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, and Theileria haneyi. Piroplasmosis is the cause of serious economic losses in horse breeding all over the world; however, this invasion remains practically unexplored in the territory of the Baikal region. The purpose of the study was to obtain data on the infection of horses with piroplasms, to establish the species of the identified pathogens and their genetic diversity, as well as the breadth of distribution of foci of piroplasmosis in equids in the Irkutsk region. Materials and methods: 659 blood samples of clinically healthy horses from various agricultural organizations from 13 districts of the Irkutsk region were examined for the presence of DNA of Babesia spp./Theileria spp. using nested PCR using primers from the 18S rRNA gene region. To study the genetic diversity of causative agents of horse piroplasmosis, sequencing of 103 horse blood samples was carried out. In all studied areas of the Irkutsk region, DNA of Babesia spp./Theileria spp. was found in equine blood samples. Infection of animals varied from 21,3 % to 100 %, averaging 64,2 %. Nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of representatives of the order Piroplasmida were analyzed in 103 horse blood samples. It was shown that 102 studied samples belong to T. equi and belong to two (A and Е) of the five known genetic groups (A – E). The most common in the region was genotype Е, it was found on the territory of nine districts of the region. For the first time in the Baikal region, DNA of B. caballi was detected in one equine blood sample. In this study, a wide distribution of foci of equine piroplasmosis with circulation of T. equi genotypes A and Е and B. caballi was established. A high level of infection of horses with piroplasms was revealed. Key words: horse piroplasmosis, theileriosis, babesiosis, Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, infection, genetic variability. 
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.6.31-40

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY

42 Serdyuk G.N., Batrakov A.Ya., Plemyashov K.V. Methods for improving the reproductive and adaptive qualities of Holsteinized cattle

In order to increase milk productivity, all domestic breeds of cattle are covered by the Holstein breed. The results of such Holsteinization are high milk productivity and low livestock viability. The average duration of their use in farms is limited to 1 – 2 calving. This article indicates the reasons for the early retirement of Holsteinized cows. In order to increase the genetic diversity in nascent young animals, which is necessary to increase their viability, it is proposed to conduct an individual selection of parental pairs with opposite genotypes. Such selection is possible by blood groups. It is also recommended to pay special attention to the balanced feeding of animals and the creation of proper conditions for their maintenance. Key words: cattle, holsteinization, genetic diversity, selection, productive longevity, breed.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.6.42-45

45 Korochkina E.A., Nikitin V.V. Clinical and hormonal characteristics of dairy cows in the transition period

The aim of this research was to study clinical and hormonal characteristics of dairy cows in the transition period. The studies were carried out in one of the breeding farms of the Leningrad region (Russia). The milk production of cows was 7000 kg. The blood of cows (n=10, black-motley breed) at the age 3 – 6 years were subjected to clinical and hormonal analysis 4 times: 21 and 10 days before calving, 2 and 14 days after calving. The blood levels of hemoglobin, red blood cell count, leucocytes, hemoglobulin, thrombocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation reaction, basophils, eosinophile, myelocyte, immature neutrophile, band neutrophile, segmented neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte by Micros 60 hematology analyzer. Data were analyzed through T-student test by StatTech programme. Statistical differences (p<0,05) were established in the hemoglobulin level observing the increase of their in the fresh cows (2 days after calving) compared to data from beginning of transition period (84,5±1,6 g/l vs 92,6±2,7 g/l). The thrombocytes level was statistically decreased in the cows’ blood of second part of transition period mainly 2 and 14 days after calving (p<0,01, 306,5±16,9х109/l vs 234,0±10,8х109/l; 306,5±16,9х109/l vs 208,4±8,3х109/l) compared to data 21 days before calving. We have also observed the significant decrease of thrombocytes level in the cows’ blood of period in 10 days before calving and 14 days after calving (p<0,05, 258,9±21,4х109/l vs 208,4±8,3х109/l). The segmented neutrophil level was statistically increased in the cows’ blood 10 days before calving (p<0,05, 41,4±2, 4 % vs 50,4±2, 9 %) compared to data which was got in the cows’ blood 14 days after calving. A statistically insignificant difference was observed in the analysis of thyroxin disease, in particular, its increase was found in the second half of the transition period, after which the value of the indicator was reduced by 1,5 times for 14 days after calving (14,82±1,99 pmol/l vs. 9,76±1,19 pmol/l). The tendency to detect cortisol in the blood of cows in the second half of the transition period. The highest indicator of celebration is on the 14th day after the hotel (44,4±12,40). These results were corresponded with biology of transition period exactly parturition and postpartum involution of reproductive organs mainly uterus. Key words: clinical characteristics, hormonal concentrations, dairy cows, the transition period. 
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.6.45-48

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE

49 Gorinsky V.I., Salautin V.V., Pudovkin N.A., Salautina S.E. An attempt of using adjuvant combined systemic immuno-chemotherapy in cats with fibrosarcoma of the injection site     
This article presents the results of studies aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of combined systemic immunochemotherapy of injection site feline fibrosarcoma in combination with surgical resection of the tumor. All animals underwent en bloc surgical resection of the tumor, followed by adjuvant chemo- or immunochemotherapy with Doxorubicin and recombinant feline Interferon Omega. The recorded mean duration of the relapse-free period in the combined immunochemotherapy group was 275 days (±50,9); in the chemotherapy group, it was 178 days (±26,7). When evaluating the overall toxicity in the experimental group, we found no signs of above grade 1 toxicity in 3 patients and one cat with symptoms of grade 2 toxicity. In the control group, all animals were determined to have grade II overall toxicity. Key words: fibrosarcoma in cats, immunochemotherapy,  recombinant interferon omega, doxorubicin.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.6.49-54

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

55 Orobets V.A., Mukaseev S.V., Zeynalov O.A. Toxicological evaluation of an anthelmintic drug for dogs and cats Supramil® tablets

The article presents the results of studies of the toxicological characteristics of the drug for veterinary use Supramil® tablets based on R-praziquantel and milbemycin oxime. The results of toxicometry and observational data on experimental animals make it possible to attribute the finished dosage form of the medicinal product Supramil® tablets to hazard class IV "Substances of low hazard" in accordance with GOST 12.1.007 – 76. The oral LD50 for mice is over 12,000 mg/kg BW, and the LD50 for rats is over 15,000 mg/kg BW. The drug Supramil® tablets at doses of 1500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, when administered daily orally to white outbred rats for 14 days, did not cause significant changes in their clinical condition and morphology of internal organs, hematological and biochemical blood parameters . The drug does not have allergenic properties. Evaluation of the ability of the drug to cause a state of hypersensitivity did not reveal any allergenic properties in conjunctival and nasal tests, as well as in the reaction of indirect mast cell degranulation. The results of this experimental study allow us to conclude that the medicinal preparation Supramil® tablets does not have toxic and allergenic properties. Key words: Supramil® tablets, R-praziquantel, milbemycin oxime, LD50, mice, rats.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.6.55-62

ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY

64 Tyurin V.G., Semenov V.G., Vinogradov P.N., Biryukov K.N., Rodionova N.V. Veterinary, sanitary and environmental requirements for irrigation systems using livestock waste

The veterinary-sanitary and environmental requirements for irrigation systems when using livestock waste are given. The use of livestock effluents in irrigation systems as an organic fertilizer ensures effective soil and biological purification, agricultural use of waste, improves soil fertility, prevents environmental pollution and ensures veterinary well-being. Key words: livestock runoff, irrigation systems, environmental protection, veterinary and sanitary, agrotechnical and environmental requirements, agricultural land.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.6.64-69

VETERINARY-SANITATY CONTROL

70 Samatova A.A., Shlyamina O.V., Kashevarov G.S., Мakaeva А.R. Parasitical control of food products safety
 
Providing the population with safe food products has always been an urgent, in-demand task. This article presents the data of parasitological research of vegetables, berries, greens and fish. The tests were carried out in accordance with generally accepted methods. The result of the study was negative in the lavages from vegetables, berries and greens. However, during the parasitological study of fish, non-viable helminth larvae were found in a number of samples. The data obtained and presented in the article prove the importance of conducting parasitological monitoring of food products. Key words: fruits vegetables, fish products, parasitological investigations, helminth.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.6.70-72

73 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY

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CONTENTS №6-2022