CONTENTS №2-2023

3 Glotova T.I., Koteneva S.V., Nefedchenko A.V., Velker D.A., Glotov A.G. Etiological agents causing reproduction pathology  in cows in big dairy farms

The results of the study of samples of biological material from dairy cows and first calving heifers with various pathologies of the reproductive organs (endometritis, stillbirth, abortion) at big dairy farms are presented. Molecular, bacteriological and mycological methods were used to study 954 samples of biological material. Various infectious agents are involved in the occurrence of reproduction pathology in cows and first-calving heifers: viruses of infectious rhinotracheitis, bovine herpesvirus type 4, viral diarrhea, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungi, both in monovariant and various associations. An increase in associations of microorganisms and a change in the spectrum of bacteria involved in the pathology of the reproductive organs, towards an increase in the number of anaerobic bacteria Clostridium spp. Key words: reproductive organs, viruses, bacteria, fungi, polymerase chain reaction, bacteriological methods.



10 Velichko G.N., Shulyak A.F., Gainullina A.G., Ovchinnikov R.S., Stafford V.V. Aspergillosis outbreak in geese: epizootological and clinical aspects

The outbreak of aspergillosis in large goose farm has been described in this article. Disease has been only in one poultry house with  goslings at the age 39 days. Disease was acute without demonstrative symptoms. Mortality was reached 50 % for 3 weeks. The gray-white foci on serosal membranes were pathognomonic signs. A. fumigatus culture have grown from these foci. Secondary outbreak have appeared at distant farm in goslings at the age 10 – 14 days, purchased in the above farm at first days of life. They had no contact with infected birds, and transmission of the pathogen possibly occurred during transportation. Disease was acute with signs of respiratory system damage, intoxication and ended fatally in 2 – 3 days. Mortality was 30 %. Postmortem changes were milliary foci and fungal origin unevenly colored films on abdominal and thoracal serosal membranes. A.fumigatus culture have grown from these foci also. Histological examination visceral layer of the pleura revealed extensive areas of necrosis surrounded by leukocytes, fungal elements. Outbreaks have been stopped by nystatin, iodine-contained drugs treatment and relocating birds in other poultry house. Key words: aspergillosis, geese, morbidity, mortality, factors of transmission, histological changes. 



15 Elizbarashvili E.I., Zuev Yu.V., Shevtcova L.I., Atrohova S.V., Emelianov I.A., Kokorina E.G.,  Kudesova A.N., Egorenkova М.I. Aujeszky's disease (review)

The review article summarizes the literature data on the study of the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease (AD). Its structure, physicochemical and biological properties are considered. The paper presents data on the spread, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, specific prevention and prevention of the spread of diseases. A brief analysis of modern methods of diagnosing BA is given. Key words: Aujeszky's disease virus, vaccination, immunity, diagnostics, prevention.


20 Balashova E.A., Yurkov S.G. Pig alveolar macrophages for laboratory diagnostics of a member of the Arteriviridae family

Isolation of field isolates of viral pathogens in cell culture is the "gold standard" for laboratory diagnosis of the disease, allowing further virological and molecular biological studies. The article presents the results of a study of the sensitivity of porcine alveolar macrophages to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae), depending on the age of donors. Key words: porcine alveolar macrophages, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Eagle MEM medium.


25 Baryshnikova E.I., Senina M.E., Shchelkunova Yu.P., Kropocheva I.Yu. The development of a kit for detecting siberian sturgeon herpesvirus DNA by real-time PCR

The article presents data of the development a new kit based on Real-Time PCR for the qualitative detection of the siberian sturgeon herpesvirus DNA in biological material. The analytical specificity of the kit was determined using field isolates and reference strains of siberian sturgeon herpesvirus, spring carp viremia, koi carp herpesvirus and human cytomegalovirus. The analytical sensitivity of the kit was determined by titration of recombinant plasmid DNA containing a DNA fragment of Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus. Key words: siberian sturgeon herpesvirus, Real-Time PCR.



31 Egorova T.P., Arshba I.M., Demerchyan A.V.Lenshina Y.I. Species diversity and structure of parasitic-bacterial combinations in intestinal diseases of monkeys

The frequency of occurrence of parasitic invasions in combination with intermicrobial associations in macaques and baboons with intestinal diseases was analyzed. The invasion of monkeys by protozoan parasites Balantidium coli, Lamblia intestinalis and Blastocystis sp., and helminths Trichuris trichiura were found out. The dominance of protozoal invasion in macaques and helminthic invasion in baboons was shown.  The occurrence and composition of intermicrobial associations in monkeys with parasitic invasion are established. It was found that against the background of the dominant protozoal invasion in macaques, the frequency of isolation of representatives of opportunistic enterobacteria increases in dead animals. Baboons have representatives of the Morganellaceae family (Proteus, Providencia and Morganella) against the background of the dominant helminthic invasion. Key words: monkeys, intestinal diseases, protozoal parasites, helminths, opportunistic enterobacteria, intermicrobial associations.



37 Khotmirova O.V., Timoshkina E.I. Dynamics of the concentration of free amino acids in the blood plasma of pigs during the rearing period on diets with a low protein content and a different ratio of limiting amino acids with exchange energy

We studied the dynamics of the concentration of free amino acids in the blood plasma of pigs during the growing period on diets with low protein content and various ratios of limiting amino acids with exchange energy. The level of free amino acids in the blood plasma is a reliable criterion that reflects the usefulness of the amino acid mixture supplied with food, and the need for them in the animal organism. The decrease in the total amount of amino acids in the blood plasma of piglets of the 2nd group was associated with their maximum use in biosynthetic processes. The fact that pigs of the 3rd group excreted more nitrogen is quite obvious; they received a higher level of protein and limiting amino acids. But the fact that in the body of the same animals the % of its deposition was lower than in the animals of the 2nd group suggests that amino acids, including limiting ones, were not used productively. From this we can conclude that only a scientifically substantiated decrease in the level of protein, with the enrichment of rations with limiting amino acids, will make it possible to obtain high-quality pork without overspending feed. Key words: pigs, low-protein diets, amino acids, metabolic energy.



43 Tyurin V.G., Biryukov K.N., Mysova G.A. Chemical and toxicological characteristics of organic animal waste in the process of vermicomposting

The results of studies on the nature of changes in chemicals in the biotechnological process of processing cattle manure with the help of earthworms and their concentration in the final products – vermicompost and biomass are presented. Key words: toxic substances, vermiculture, vermicompost, organic waste, biomass, compost.



46 Gaponov N.V. Changes in biochemical blood parameters of rainbow trout when white lupine is included in the diet

The effect of white lupine on hematological blood parameters of rainbow trout was studied. When developing cost-effective fish feeding programs, taking into account the technological parameters of production, we maximally optimized the composition of mixed feeds in terms of nutritional value against the background of reducing their cost. With a balanced diet, the biochemical composition of the blood of a trout is fairly constant. Insufficient or excessive intake of macro- and micronutrients into their body disrupts metabolic processes in tissues, which affects these indicators. It was found that in the fish of the third group, when white lupine containing less than 0,02 % alkaloids was introduced into the diet, the level of bilirubin in the blood was higher than the control values by 3,50 %, and compared with that in the fourth group – by 7,0 %, but was within the normal range and the differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0,05). Accordingly, the excretion and conjugation of bilirubin is not impaired. The content of total protein in the blood of trout of the third and fourth groups increased by 4,8 (p<0,01) and 21,7  %, respectively, relative to the control, which is due to age-related changes and the balance of recipes. Key words: white lupine, trout, recipe, enzyme, protein, alkaloid, blood.


53 Zavodnik L.B., Shpakou A.I., Polubinskaya S.E., Voronov D.V., Khokha А.M., Sheshko D.V., Voloshin D.B., Budko T.N., Sh.N. Telekova, Shimkus A., Mammadov R.

Possibilities of using garlic in veterinary medicine (review)

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) – a perennial herb in the Onion genus (Allium) has long been used not only as an aromatic seasoning, but also as a therapeutic agent. The article summarizes modern ideas about the biological and pharmacological activity of various parts of the plant (bulbs, stems) and preparations prepared from them. The modern mechanisms of the therapeutic action of individual active chemical components of the plant are disclosed. The possibilities of antiseptic, antiatherosclerotic, antitoxic, anticarcinogenic action of preparations based on garlic are shown. Information about its negative and toxic effects is provided. The data on the possibility of using a new culinary variety – aged black garlic are given. The materials of the article are the basis for the development of methods and dosages for the use of veterinary drugs based on garlic and its individual pharmacoactive components. Key words: garlic, aged black garlic, infections, atherosclerosis, poisoning, cancer.



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CONTENTS №2-2023