CONTENTS №2-2024

3 Makarov V.V., Barsukov Yu.I., Barsukov O.Yu., Petrov A.K. Oral vaccination of foxes

A short analytical report is devoted to oral vaccination of foxes as a non-alternative measure to control rabies of the natural focal ecotype. The history of the issue, real results and lessons of application, prospects for rabies vaccination are described, and general principles for the control and prevention of rabies in the Russian Federation are given. Key words: rabies, natural focality, foxes, oral vaccination.



13 Galeeva A.G., Khammadov N.I., Aleeva Z.Z., Usoltcev K.V., Nasyrov Sh.M., Arutyunyan G.S., Osyanin K.A., Efimova M.A. Nucleotide polymorphism of G-gene of fixed rabies virus strain «Sheep VGNKI»

This paper presents the results of the study of nucleotide polymorphism of the fixed rabies virus strain «Sheep VGNKI», adapted to ВНK-21/13 cell line and used for the production of diagnostic test systems. For this purpose, G-gene 768 bp fragment of the working seed virus, containing regions encoding antigenic binding sites I, II, was amplified and sequenced. As a result of a comparative analysis of the structure of linear epitopes of vaccine and reference strains of the rabies virus, the phylogenetic proximity of the «Sheep VGNKI-ВНK-21/13» strain to the vaccine strains of the Russian-European branch of the 1st genotype (RABV) was established (93,2 – 95,9 % identity), and to a lesser extent – to strains of the SAD group (87,7 – 90,7 % identity). In the structure of the G protein ectodomain of the production strain, single amino acid substitutions were found relative to the nearest homologue, the «Schelkovo-51» strain, which did not affect the protein conformation. The conservatism of the structure of the main functional domains, as well as the absence of point mutations in the genomes of the working seed viruses, indicate the genetic stability of the strain and its compliance with the requirements of technological processes. Key words: rabies virus, fixed strain, molecular genetic analysis, Sanger sequencing.


20 Alontseva D.A., Zavyalova E.A., Droshnev A.E. Salmonid alphavirus (SAV): importance for aquaculture, control and diagnostic methods

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, spherical, single-stranded RNA (+) virus from the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Six serologically identical pathogenic subtypes are known, affecting rainbow trout, atlantic salmon, limands and Arctic char in both salty and seawater. The disease is widespread in Europe, the virus is highly contagious, and mortality rates can reach 50 %. Alphaviruses can be transmitted with running water, and salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) may act as vectors. The main disease control strategies are aimed at vaccinating fish, obtaining resistant livestock on the farm and timely diagnosis of fish and fish planting material. The authors have proposed methodological recommendations for the detection of alphaviruses of salmonid fish by the real-time, allowing to obtain a ready and accurate result within 3 hours. Key words: Salmonid alphavirus, Salmo salar, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, sleeping disease, salmon pancreatic disease, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.



27 Abdulmagomedov S.Sh., Bakrieva R.M., Engashev S.V. Babesan for the treatment of  theileriosis in cattle in  Dagestan Republic

Blood parasitic diseases of cattle are the most common in Dagestan Republic, cause significant damage to livestock, in particular, theileriosis. The economic damage, caused by theileriosis, consists of high mortality of animals (from 35 to 95%), the loss of milk productivity by sick cows (low milk yield), which is not restored to the original amount. Its distribution is associated with the confinement of vector mites from the genus Hyalomma. The search for new, effective drugs for specific therapy and prevention of theileriosis is a pressing issue in animal husbandry. In this regard, the therapeutic activity of a drug from the imidalisone group, Babezan 12 %, was studied in combination with the symptomatic drugs Vitokey and Ketoquin. The effectiveness of treatment was 86, 6 %. Key words: theileriosis, cattle, babesan, parasitemia, ixodid ticks, symptomatic treatment.


30 Indyuhova E.N., Arisov M.V., Maximov V.I., Azarnova T.O. Features of function reserve realization in hens of different age groups with dermanyssosis

The causative agent of dermanyssosis, a temporary ectoparasite, the poultry red mite (it was considered as a biological stress factor in our study) is widely distributed in poultry industry. Changes are described that occurred in physiological and biochemical processes in laying hens of different age groups infected with the mite. Features of hormonal regulation, and changes in the intensity of central metabolic processes, biosynthesis of macroergs, antioxidant status, and the hemic system are shown. The whole complex of the above changes in chickens as associated with parasitism of the aggressive hematophagous ectoparasite demonstrates an increased consumption of energy and metabolic reserves, and a tendency to their depletion in the formation and implementation of adaptive reactions. Key words: laying hens, function reserves, physiological and biochemical processes, adaptation, D. gallinae, ectoparasites.



36 Alekhin Yu.N., Zhukov M.S., Morgunova V.I., Lebedeva A.Yu. Methodological aspects of determining blood pressure in cows and evaluating the results obtained

In a dairy farm, research was conducted to unify the technology for determining blood pressure (BP) in cows. It is optimal to measure pressure using a tonometer on the caudal artery, taking into account the configuration of the tail. We believe that the cuff should be applied to an area 10 cm away from the root of the tail, where its coverage is in the range of 15 - 23 cm. The role of changes in the animal’s body position has been studied and it has been determined that the most stable indicators are recorded in the period from 5 to 15 minutes after after the animal stood up. During milking, cows showed a short hypotensive reaction, and then a pronounced increase in blood pressure. Blood pressure returns to its original level within 15-20 minutes after the milking machines are turned off. Variations in indicators and errors in their analysis may arise due to a number of exogenous and endogenous factors. Key words: cows, blood pressure, milking, tonometers.


41 Sakhno N.V., Sadskaya A.V., Vatnikov Yu.A., Yagnikov S.A., Kulikov E.V., Prozorovsky I.E., Tutkyshbay I.A. On the issue of surgical access in cases of gastric volvulus in dogs

The aim of the study was to determine the optimal surgical access for gastric volvulus in dogs to reduce the time of rehabilitation of animals in the postoperative period, as well as to reduce the incidence of complications and recurrences. The studies were carried out on 12 dogs on the elimination of the gastric volvulus. Separate stages allowing to verify the access were carried out on cadaveric material. The method of surgical access for gastric ductus in dogs involves an abdominal wall incision along the white line of the abdomen, where the straight part of the incision is the largest part of it. The second, arc-shaped part of the incision comes from the beginning of the straight part of the incision, goes along the last rib to the right side of the animal's body at an angle of 55°. The application of the developed method of operative access at the gastric volvulus in dogs allows: to increase the reliability of verification of the character of pathological changes at the gastric carriage for correct determination of the volume and estimation of technical possibilities of the forthcoming operative intervention,  to exclude the damage of nerves and violation of hemodynamics of the organism due to the prevention of blood vessels damage, to increase the visualization of the pyloric part of the stomach, to increase the accessibility and atraumaticity of the stomach removal from the abdominal cavity, to increase the convenience and atraumatic performance of manipulations to eliminate the gastric duct to its correct anatomical position and to perform right-sided gastropexy. Key words: dog; gastric volvulus; surgical access; erythrocytes; hemoglobin; hematocrit; platelets.



47 Nikolaev S.V. A method for assessing endogenous intoxication in animals

A method has been developed to assess the level of endotoxicosis in animals by measuring the concentration of substances of low and medium molecular weight in whole blood. The essence of the development consists in the initial determination of the number of erythrocytes and hematocrit in stabilized blood, followed by precipitation of large-molecular substances with a solution of trichloroacetic acid, determination of the optical density of the supernatant and recalculation of the values obtained taking into account the hematocrit index and the concentration of erythrocytes in the blood. Key words: endotoxicosis, substances of low and medium molecular weight, hematological parameters, blood, erythrocyte mass. DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2024.27.2.47-51



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CONTENTS №2-2024