3 Glotov A.G., Glotova T.I. Cattle salmonellosis on big dairy farms (Review. P.2)
New data on the role of the Salmonella dublin in the diseases of cattle on big dairy farms presented. The ability to establish a life-long infection in animals with asymptomatic carriage, periods of bacteremia and excretion of the pathogen to the environment creates problems during the control measures. The bacterium virulency depends on the presence of the plasmid Spv. The presence of this gene increases the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and contributes to the emergence of resistant strains and genetic transmission between different serotypes leads to the circulation of highly virulent strains of S. dublin and S. typhimurium in animals. Calves up to six months and adult animals are suspective in which the bacterium causes enteritis, systemic form of infection leading to the arthritis, encephalitis, pneumonia and abortions. The infection is enzootic and manifested cyclically. The stationarity maintained by bacteria carriers that release the causative agent at a concentration of up to 1014 CFU/g Salmonella per day with feces and 102/ml – 105/ml with milk and colostrum. The causative agent has common target organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory tracts and the reproductive system of animals with viruses and the common pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the similarity of clinical and pathological signs of diseases that impede the differential clinical diagnosis, planning and effectiveness of control measures. The first part presents and discusses current information about the causative agent of infection, epidemiological data and the pathogenesis of the disease. Key words: cattle, big dairy farms, Salmonella Dublin, bacteriocarriers, clinical signs, differential diagnostics, preventive measures.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
8 Rodionov A.P., Ivanova S.V., Melnikova L.A., Makayev H.N., Khisamutdinov A.G., Kozlov A.S. Characteristic of anthrax episootic situationin the Republic of Tatarstan
Currently the Republic of Tatarstantake one of the first places among the subjects of the Russian Federation by the number of anthrax outbreaks. This is due to the presence in the republic a large number of anthrax cattle cemeteries, including not having exact geographical coordinates. To improve the epizootic situation for anthrax it’s necessary to carry out comprehensive preventive measures, including determination of the titers of specific serum antibodies in immunized animals to identify among them immunotolerant and mistakenly not vaccinated. Key words: anthrax, cattlecemetery, epizooic situation, stationary contaminatedpoint.
11 Jakupov I.Т., Zharkimbayeva Zh.Z., Abultdinova A.B. Device for evaluating the condition of the reproductive organs of cows after delivery
There was improved method for assessing the condition of the genital organs and diagnosing their pathologies in cows, based on determining the timing of uterine involution and the organoleptic characteristics of the discharge at different times after calving. A special device has been developed and tested to determine the position of the uterus in the abdominal and pelvic cavities, as well as to collect uterine secretions. Its use facilitated the differentiation of the normal course of uterine involution from its subinvolution during postpartum pathologies. Key words: diagnostics, cows, postpartum pathology, subinvolution of the uterus, endometritis.
15 Ivanov N.P., Sattarova R.S., Shynybaev K.M., Bakieva F.A., Asraubaeva I.K., Spiridonov G.N. Distribution and antibiotic sensitivity of Moraxella bovis isolated from cattle in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Theку was confirmed a wide spread of moraxellosis among the cattle in the Republic of Kazakhstan: only 4 (Aktobe, North Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda) out of 11 examined regions did not reveal the disease. The disease is manifested by progressive damage to the eyes of animals and can lead to blindness. Isolated from sick animals cultures of Moraxella were identified by morphological, tinctorial and immunological properties as M. bovis. The sensitivity of 2 isolates of M. bovis and reference Moraxella strains to a number of antibacterial drugs was determined in the disk diffusion test and microdilution test systems GI and GII MIKROLATEST® SensiLaTest MIC (Erba Mannheim). These microorganisms showed resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins of 1-3 generations, which makes it inappropriate to treat animals infected with Moraxella. The sensitivity of the tested strains to cefepime, carbapenems, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin suggests that they can be used to treat moraxellosis in cattle. Clinical trials in experimental and field conditions are necessary to confirm this. Key words: antibiotic resistance, bacteriological analysis, blindness, disco-diffuse method, eyes, minimal inhibitory concentration, Moraxella.
21 Zaykova O.N., Losich M.A., Verkhovsky O.A., Nepoklonova I.V., Yelakov A.L., Grebennikova T.V., Aliper T.I., Gulyukin A.M. A comparative molecular-genetic analysis of rabies virus in Russian Federation: rabies in cats
A phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus isolated in Russia from cats and human contacted with a rabid cat was performed. Based on a comparative analysis of fragment of the rabies virus genomes, an assumption is made about territorial distribution of it. According to the results of this work, the role of a cat in the transmission of the wild to humans has been established. Key words: rabies in cats, sequencing.
29 Rekhviashvili E.I., Kabulova M.Yu., Grevtsova S.A., Aylyarova M.K. Immunobiological reactivity of sheep spontaneously infected by trematodes
At the present stage of the use of anthelmintics, there are not only obvious achievements, but also failures and complications. This applies, first of all, to increase the resistance of some helminths to antiparasitic drugs and the development hypersensitivity and even intolerance in animals to such preparates. Clarification of the mechanism of side effects during deworming and a comprehensive study of the action of anthelmintics on macroorganisms are of great practical importance. Setting ourselves the task of studying immunobiological reactivity in trematodoses, in our studies we limited ourselves to the spontaneous course of the most common in the North Caucasus helminthiases. It was found that defects of the resistance to parasites can be a consequence of change the number of T-lymphocyte suppressors. Experimental studies show that immunosuppression leads to a more severe course of the parasitic diseases. The article provides information on the immunoprotective properties of Tetraxichol, Cuprichol and Neutrophilin. In experiments conducted on sheep, it was confirmed that Neutrophilin activates the cellular component of immunity. Key words: immunobiological reactivity, Cupricholum, Neutrophilin, Tetraxicholum, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes.
32 Shibitov S.K., Safiullin R.T., Lavrov A.Yu. Influence of ultrasound on cysts Buxtonella sulcata and Toxocara catti eggs
The article presents experimental data on ultrasonic studies in vitro with a power of 0,5 W/cm2 on the cysts of the infusoria Buxtonella sulcata and eggs of the nematode Toxocara catti. According to the results of light microscopy and cultivation the maximum destructive effect on the cysts of infusoria was observed at an exposure of 45 min, on the non-invasive and invasive eggs of T. catti – 75 and 120 min consequently. Key words: ultrasound, disinvasion, cysts of infusoria Buxtonella sulcata, eggs of helminths Toxocara catti.
36 Golodyaeva M.S., Batrakov A.Y., Yashin A.V., Shcherbakov G.G. Reproducing abilities of cow heifers at application of hepatoprotector Hepalan
In the present work we analyze the influence of hepatoprotector Hepalan on reproductive qualities of cows of the post partum period. Also included in the topic of the article are data on weight gain of calves obtained from the tested animals as a visual indicator of the effectiveness of the drug used for the viability of the offspring. The study revealed a higher percentage of postpartum pathologies in the control group compared to the experimental one. Namely, the detention of the afterbirth with the subsequent development of endometritis in the control group was found in 25% of animals, while in the experimental group in 10%. The time from calving to fruitful insemination was 105 days in the control group, while in the experimental group it was 96 days. Overdrives was found at 2 head of heifers from the control group and 1 from the group experience. Mastitis developed only in the 1st cow of the control group. In the control group, one first-calf aborted. As for weight gain of calves, it is possible to note a lag in body weight in the control group throughout the experiment. Thus, the body weight of calves from the first-calf control group in the first month of life was less by 4,3 % compared to the experimental group. In the second month of life, the gap in weight gain was 7,7%. After three months of control weighing, the calves' body weight was 12 % less than that of the calves from the experimental group. Key words: reproduction, hepatoprotector, postpartum period, obstetric pathology, calf gain.
38 Manzhurina O.A., Klimov N.T., Parkhomenko Y.S., Zimnikov V.I., Perepelkina I.S., Semenova E.V. Milk microflora of clinically healthy and mastitis diseased cows
It was established that the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (QMAFAnM) in the milk of healthy cows in the farms of the Voronezh region is 6,6±2,4×103 CFU/cm3. This figure was below 103 CFU/cm3 in 72,1 % of animals. Almost 25 % of the milk samples studied were free of microorganisms. The milk contamination of cows with mastitis by opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms was 2,4±0,97×106 CFU/cm3. This figure exceeded 5,0 ×105 CFU/cm3 in 5,3 % of the samples. A special role of yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida in the development of breast pathology in cows was noted. They were isolated from the udder secretion of 7 % of clinically healthy and 48 % of mastitis cows. In 6,7 % of the latter candidiasis proceeded in the form of monoinfection. These observations dictate the need for using fungicidal and immunomodulating drugs for treatment mastitis in cows when yeast-like fungi are found in their milk. Key words: bacteria, cows, mastitis, microflora, milk, yeast-like fungi.
41 Nikitina A.A., Kovalev S.P., Trushkin V.A., Votintseva A.P. Results of clinical-hematological research of calves born by cows with chronic hepatosis
The study was conducted on 17 calves of two months of age in ZAO Krasnoselskoye of the Leningrad Region in 2018. Eight of them (control group) were born by clinically healthy cows. The rest of the calves (experimental group) received from patients with chronic hepatosis of cows. Hepatosis was diagnosed on the base of results hematological and histological studies (liver samples were taken during life and after slaughter of cows). Calves of the control group surpassed in the number of erythrocytes, concentration of hemoglobin and total blood protein the calves from experimental group in 9,1; 10,6 and 9,8 %. Content of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood of the latter, in contrast, were in 2 and 4,5 times higher than in control animals, respectively. The biochemical analysis revealed a statistically insignificant increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gammaglutamyltransferase in calves obtained from cows with hepatosis. Signs of metabolic disturbances detected in the offspring of cows with hepatosis must be considered during selection breed animals, because such animals, if not complying with the general rules of feeding and housing, are susceptible to the development of ketosis, fatty liver and other pathologies. Key words: calves, cows, hemoglobin, hepatosis, metabolism, red blood cells.
44 Salomatin V.V., Varakin A.T., Kocharyan V.D., Kharlamova E.A., Мedvedev А.U. The influence of a mineral additive on indicators of haemogram, functional activity of glutathione and blood leukocytic formula of calves
The influence of a complex mineral supplement – natural bishofite on indicators of a haemogram, functional activity of glutathione and blood leukocytic formula of calves were studied. It is established that the introduction of natural bishofite in the ration of three-month animals of II experimental group compared to the control group and I experimental group contributes to increasing in a number of erythrocytes respectively 5,0 and 1,83 %, leukocytes – 4,35 and 2,74 %, hemoglobin – 8,81 and 6,42 %, total glutathione – 8,70 and 3,85 %, recycled glutathione – 13,76 (Р<0,05) and 6,68 %. It is known that in calves treated with natural bishofite, compare with calves in the other group, contained higher indicators respectively: color index of blood 3,09 and 5,26 % (Р<0,05), the average content of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte 3,64 (Р<0,05) and 4,49 % (Р<0,05), the average concentration of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte 4,37 and 4,34 %. It is revealed the predominance of stab and segmented neutrophils and basophils and reducing the number of lymphocytes and monocytes in comparison to control group and I experimental group. There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental calves in the relative content in the blood of different forms of leukocytes. Key words: ration, calves, natural bischofite, magnesium chloride, chemically pure magnesium chloride, erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin, color index of blood, the average content of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte, glutathione, leukocytic formula of blood.
48 Zabashta N.N., Golovko E.N., Moskalenko E.A., Lisovitskaya E.P. Positive influence of symbiotic probiotics on the immune system, intestinal microflora and the weight gain of pigs
The experiment was conducted on 2 – 6-month-old pigs (n=35) of Landrace breed. Inclusion in the diet of lactic acid supplement based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus lactis in an amount of 20 ml/head/day led to an increase in weight gain and improve the composition of the intestinal microflora. Key words: bifidobacteriums, diet, immunity, lactobacilli, microflora, pig, probiotic, weight gain.
51 Rudenko A.A. The predictors of death in the dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy
There were detected 6 independent predictors of a lethal outcome of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs: sex, functional class of chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary edema, ascites and rate of filling capillaries by blood. The effective model of a lethality prediction in sick dogs by these criterions during one year of supervising was developed. The received model is characterized by high level of self-descriptiveness (7,8 %), sensitivity (63,3 %) and specificity (91,8 %). Key words: death, dilated cardiomyopathy, dogs, prediction, survival rate.
57 Vyayzenen G.N., Dautov R.R., Golovey V.V., Barashkov A.E., Prodanov N.S., Vyayzenen A.G. Rape processing products clean milk and organism of cows from heavy metals
Foods based on rapeseed are increasingly included in the diet of calves and dairy cows in the Kaliningrad, Lipetsk, Leningrad, Novgorod and Moscow regions, the Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia, Poland and other countries. Processing of rapeseed, based on their deep freezing followed by extrusion, allows to obtain feed products with high antioxidant, antitoxic and sorption properties. Their inclusion in the diet of deep-shelled cows increases the ecological and nutritional value of milk. During this period heavy and toxic metals accumulate in the body of cows and milk, adversely affecting on the metabolism and animal health, as well as the quality of milk during silage-feeding type of feeding. Rapeseed processing products improve the taste and smell of feed, cleanse milk and the body of cows from heavy metals. Key words: cow, lactation, metabolism, rapeseed, pregnancy, heavy metals.