3 Orlyankin B.G., Vlasova A.N., Mukhin A.N., Aliper T.I. Coronavirus infections in animals: epizootology and pathogenesis
The publication presents up-to-date information on the epizootology and pathogenesis of common coronavirus infections in pigs, cattle, poultry, dogs and cats. The distribution and relevance of various coronaviruses to infectious disease pathology in animals are analysed. Key words: coronaviruses, epizootology, pathogenesis, animals.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
14 Blokhin A.A., Burova O.A., Toropova N.N., Zakharova O.I., Iashin I.V., Korennoy F.I. Monitoring ASF in wildlife: virus survival in wild boar carcasses and disinfection methods (review)
The study of the ASF virus survival in the wild boar population and carcasses is carried out within the framework of active and passive monitoring. Sampling is carried out from corpses in varying degrees of decomposition, which makes it possible to establish the safety of the ASF virus depending on the degree of decomposition of the corpse. Soft tissues and bone marrow are used as a specialty. The survival rate of the ASF virus is determined by a number of factors: the type of substrate and temperature. In the environment, the stability of ASF virus in dead wild boar tissues varies with matrix and temperature. Soil PH, structure and ambient temperature play a significant role in the stability of the infectious ASF virus. ASF virus DNA can be detected in the soil of dead wild boars for at least 4 weeks. At the same time, the infectious ASF virus in the soil of forests and meadows persists for 1 week, and in the soil from swampy areas for 3 days. In the sand, the viability of the virus lasts at least 3 weeks. In acidic forest soils, the virus quickly dies. Artificial acidification of the soil with citric acid or the addition of calcium hydroxide completely inactivates the virus in the soil. In addition, trivial disinfectants (chlorine-containing substances, alkalis, aldehydes) are very effective in inactivating the ASF virus in soil and other natural substrates where wild boar carcasses can be found. Therefore, their use should be recommended in the implementation of various veterinary and sanitary measures for the detection of ASF in wild boar populations. Key words: ASF, wild boar, virus survival, disinfection, weather.
22 Preobrazhentskiy G.D. Healthy gut is the key to effective vaccination
The article presents data indicating the positive effect of the use of B-Act on the effectiveness of vaccination of poultry against infectious diseases. Key words: probiotics, vaccination, intestines, birds.
25 Pchelnikov A.V., Yatsentyuk S.P. Infectious rhinotracheitis of cattle in imported wild ruminants
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IRT) is a disease that, according to numerous reports of Russian authors, was first introduced into the territory of our country with imported cattle. Currently, the import of cattle into Russia continues, and we have previously shown that the risk of introducing this disease with imported animals is high. The possibility of the introduction of the causative agent of infectious rhinotracheitis in cattle with imported semen was also demonstrated. The information of a number of foreign authors on the detection of the causative agent of this disease in wild artiodactyls from European populations makes it relevant to assess the possibility of the introduction of herpesvirus type 1 cattle - the causative agent of IRT – with imported wild ruminants. After conducting studies of biological material selected from imported animals of one batch, selected randomly, we found that almost all of these animals have antibodies to the causative agent of IRT, and in 7 animals, the genetic material of bovine herpesvirus type 1 was detected in flushes from the nasal mucosa. Thus, we have confirmed the possibility of introducing the pathogen of cattle IRT with wild artiodactyls imported from abroad. Key words: herpesvirus, infectious rhinotracheitis, wild animals, monitoring, epizootic situation.
28 Sidorchuk A.A., Belkina Yu.S. Cattle hoof pathology: causes and predisposing factors
The review presents an analysis of publications in Russian and foreign literature on the problem of pathology of the hooves and digits in cattle in dairy farms, causing lameness. The issues of the spread of diseases, economic problems, causes and predisposing factors, etiological agents causing digital (interdigital) dermatitis and necrobacteriosis (infectious pododermatitis) are considered. It is noted that in the causes of this pathology, broad associations of microorganisms of various groups may be important. Key words: lameness, lesions of the hooves and digits, digital dermatitis, Mortellaro's disease, necrobacteriosis.
34 Penkova I.N., Balybina N.Yu., Koptev V.Yu. Detection of animals seropositive for arthritis-encephalitis in goats in the Siberian and Ural Federal districts
The article presents the characteristics of goat arthritis-encephalitis, as well as the results of screening studies carried out in 2020 – 2021, which identify animals seropositive for arthritis-encephalitis in goats in the territories of different regions of the Siberian and Ural federal districts. To perform the work, the method of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen® MVV/CAEV Indirect Screening test) was used. Key words: arthritis-encephalitis of goats, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
39 Gissatullin R.R., Gissatullina R.R., Lutfullin M.H. Study of the therapeutic efficacy of a new drug for bovine telyaziose
This paper presents the results of a study of acute toxicity, local irritant effect and allergenic activity on white mice, rats and rabbits of the drug (eye drops). When administered in a dose of 5 ml to white rats and 1 ml to white mice, it does not have a toxic property, locally irritating effect on the skin and mucous membrane of the eyes. Its weak allergenic effect has been established. The anthelmintic and therapeutic efficacy of this remedy in bovine telaziosis has also been studied. The composition of eye drops includes three active substances: n-hexadecyltributylphosphonium bromide at a concentration of 0,0000001 wt.%; 5,7-dichloro-4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxane at a concentration of 0,00001 wt.%; 4,6-dichloro-5-nitrobenzofuroxane at a concentration of 0,0001 wt.%, as well as an artificial tear. Studies have shown that the drug in 0,00001 % concentration when used for five days, 2 times a day, 3 drops into the cavity of the conjunctival sac of the affected eye, has 100 % nematocidal efficacy against telyazii. In treated animals, during 5 days of observation, telyazias in flushes from conjunctival cavities are not detected and signs of keratoconjunctivitis are completely absent. Key words: white mice, rats, rabbits, cattle, eye drops, toxicity, treatment, telyaziosis, efficacy.
44 Terpugova N.Yu., Grushko M.P., Fedorova N.N. Posthodiplostomosis of early youth vobla
The article presents the results of a histopathological study of the organs and muscle tissue of the infected juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Jakowlew, 1870) trematodes of P. cuticola (Nordmann, 1832; Dubois, 1936) – the causative agent of black-spotted fish disease. During the work, the examined individuals revealed pathological changes in the respiratory apparatus, excretory system and liver cells, as well as violations of the motor activity of fish. The histological picture of postdiplostomosis in the early stages of fish ontogenesis indicates that such disorders indicate irreversible changes in the organs and significantly reduce the viability of individuals. Key words: young roach, postdiplostomosis, histopathology, Volga Delta.
51 Slesarenko N.A., Shirokova E.O., Kashkovskaya L.M. Acute endometritis in cows: new approach in treatment
The drug Maxinon in acute catarrhal and purulent endometritis in cows showed 80 – 93% efficiency. At the same time, the course of treatment was significantly reduced and the recovery of animals accelerated. Due to the regenerating effect and restoration of the mucous layer of the uterus of cows after the administration of Maxinon, the reproductive function of cows is preserved. Key words: acute endometritis, cows, levofloxacin, D-panthenol, Maxinon, treatment.
58 Korochkina E.A., Nikitin V.V., Trushkin V.A. Clinical analysis of dairy cows blood in the close-up dry period as one of the markers of the management success in the transition period
The close-up dry period, as the first half of the transit time, was associated with important reproductive processes such as the pregnancy termination and the initiation of parturation. A large body of research have established the relationship between the success of transit time management (the main point are the feeding and the keeping), and the health and productivity of animals. The study aim was to research the blood analysis of dairy cows in the close-up dry period in aspect of the successful management of the transition period. The research was carried out in a livestock farm in the Leningrad Region on Black-and-White cows. Milk productivity was varies from 5625 to 10000 kg per lactation (305 days). The bloods’ samples (n=10) were determined the morphological composition of blood, hemoglobin and ESR. Blood cells were counted on a Micros 60 hematology analyzer. ESR was assessed by the Panchenkov method. The results of research were showed the tendency to increase the level of hemoglobin and ESR, in 20 % – the insignificant erythrocytopenia and a decrease in the number of blood platelets. The data of the leukocyte formula was showed the decrease of eosinophils amount in 60 % of animals (2,5 times compared with the upper limit of the norm), and, on the contrary, an increase of there by 20 % in cows (1,3 times compared with the upper limit of the norm). There is a change of stab neutrophils amount in 20 % samples. There was an increase of segmented neutrophils amount by 1,2 – 1,4 times in 90 % samples, a tendency to increase of lymphocytes amount in 50 % of animals, a significant increase of the monocytes level in 20 % of animals. The reason of this blood change could be the performance of cows’ reproductive system in the close-up dry period and the possible violations in the management (low activity of animals) of cows in the close-up dry period. In addition, the study of the clinical profile of blood is an important diagnostic measure of the clinical state of the body in the transit time. Key words: clinical analysis of blood, dairy cows, close-up dry period.
62 Tatarintsev S.A., Stekolnirov A.A. Intramural ectopic of the ureter in dogs
Ectopia of the ureters is a common pathology in dogs, characterized by the clinical symptom of urinary incontinence. There are extramural and intramural ectopia. This anomaly is diagnosed by endoscopic examination. This article presents the etiology and general data on the disease, information on the different types of ectopia. Described the foundation of surgical treatment and reasoned an endosurgical method of treatment of intramural ectopia ureters is as the optimal one. Also there is a characteristic of this technique, the complications and advantages encountered are described. Key words: ectopic ureter, intramural ectopic, urinary incontinence, laser ablation, endoscopy, urinary bladder, pathology of urinary tract, ureteral anomalies, ureteral reimplantation, neoureterocystostomy.
65 Chelnokova M.I., Suleymanov F.I., Chelnokov A.A. Epigenetic adaptation to variable temperatures of incubation of embryos of chickens of the Lohmann Brown cross
The article discusses the current issue of epigenetic adaptation to variable temperatures of incubation of embryos of chickens of the Lohmann Brown cross. Incubation of eggs (n=300) from the single-aged bird was carried out at variable (37,8; 39,5; 37,5 and 37,0 0C on days 1 – 14, 15 – 17 for 2 h daily, 18, and 19 – 21, respectively) and standard (37,6 0C – 1 – 21st day) incubation temperature. The absolute values of weight body sizes of chicken embryos were estimated using morphometric method from the 4th to the 20th day; the formula C. Brody calculated the relative rate of body weight growth of chicken embryos, the rate of carbon dioxide release; the formula of simple allometry (A.M. Bolotnikov et al.) – the level of metabolism; by the equation of least squares (C.M. Vleck, D.F. Hoyt) – the level of heat production. It was revealed that epigenetic adaptation to variable incubation temperatures is expressed in a more intensive growth of chicken embryos of the Lohmann Brown cross, an increase in their metabolic processes and heat production by the hatching period. As a result, the differentiation of the incubation temperature during embryogenesis has a positive effect on the results of incubation, the percentage of young brood is higher by 7,03 % due to a decrease in embryonic mortality, a decrease in the number of frozen embryos and suffocated chickens. Key words: epigenetic temperature adaptation, chicken embryos, embryogenesis, incubation temperature, metabolism, heat production.