3 Naymanov A.H., Ustinova G.I., Tolstenko N.G., Vangeli E.P., Kucheruk O.D., Kalmykov V.M. Simultaneous tuberculin test for the selection of reacting animals and the diagnosis of tuberculosis
The analysis of numerous and long-term studies of simultaneous breakdown with PPD tuberculin for mammals and CAM is presented in order to differentiate allergic reactions, select animals for diagnostic slaughter and establish a diagnosis of tuberculosis. The main advantages and disadvantages of the simultaneous tuberculin test are indicated. It has been established that at the present stage of the fight against cattle tuberculosis, there is no need to differentiate the herd of animals by the method of group accounting of allergic reactions and use the cumbersome table for determining the reliability of the reactions, and when revealing animals that respond to tuberculin, to re-examine the entire herd of animals with a simultaneous breakdown. Therefore, due to the fact that in accordance with the current regulatory documents the diagnosis of tuberculosis is not made according to the indications of intravital allergic studies, the simultaneous test should be used only for the purpose of selecting reacting animals for diagnostic slaughter. Key words: tuberculosis, cattle, nonspecific reactions, allergic studies, simultaneous testing, PPD tuberculin for mammals, a complex allergen from atypical mycobacteria (СAM), recording and evaluation of allergic reactions, determining the significance of differences in reactions.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
7 Lashin A.P., Simonova N.V. Comparative effectiveness of succinic acid and Reamberin in the oxidative stress in newborn calves
In experimental conditions the possibility to correct free radical lipid oxidation of calves’ organism membranes was studied with the introduction ofthe succinic acid and of the succinate containing drug called Reamberin (Research and Technological Pharmaceutical Firm POLYSAN, Saint Petersburg, Russia). The animals were divided into 3 groups and each of them had 15 calves: the control group animals which were held in standard conditions; the experimental group in which animals had a daily oral intake of the succinic acid in a dose of 50 mg/kg; the experimental group in which animals had a daily by intravenous injection of the the drug Reamberin of 60 ml of 1,5 % solution for infusion. The introduction of the succinic acidto calves contributes to the reliable decrease in the blood of lipid hydroperoxides by 23 %, of diene conjugates – by 17 %, and of malonic dialdehyde by 20 % in comparison with the animalsof the control group. The introduction of the succinate containing drug called Reamberin to calves in the conditions of oxidative stress contributes to the reliable decrease in the blood of lipid hydroperoxides by 33 %, of diene conjugates – by 26 %, and of malonic dialdehyde by 26 % in comparison with the animalsof the control group. While analyzing the effect of the succinate containing drugs on the activity of the components of antioxidant system it was shown that the level of ceruloplasmin in the bloodof animals was reliably higher by 29 – 43 %, of vitamin E by 17 – 43 %, of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by 21 – 29 %, of catalase by 25 – 31 % in comparison with the same parameters of the calves of the control group. So, the application of the succinate containing antioxidants in newborn calvesleads to the stabilization of the processes of peroxidation against the increase of antioxidant system activity.The intravenousintroduction in animals of the reamberin prevents the accumulation of lipoperoxidation products and increases the activity of main components of the antioxidant system in calves’ blood plasma, which indirectly exceeds similar effect of succinic acid in the conditions of oxidative stress. Key words: antioxidant system, calves, diene conjugates, lipid hydroperoxides, biological membranes lipid peroxidation, malonic dialdehyde, oxidative stress, products of peroxidation,Reamberin, succinic acid.
12 Papunidi K.Kh., Saifutdinov A.M., Mokhtarova S.L., Semenov E.I. Causes of mass death of bees in the Ulyanovsk region in summer 2018
The case of the mass death of bees, which took place in the Ulyanovsk region in the summer of 2018, was provoked by the incorrect use of toxic chemicals in the processing of farmland. When toxicological analysis of the causes of poisoning in the obtained samples were found various pesticides. The problem of falsification of commodity forms of pesticides and their free circulation in the Russian Federation, and the combined impact on bees was raised. Key words: bees, pesticides, poisoning.
15 Shevchenko P.V., Bermukhametov Zh.Zh., Mashnin A.V., Kokanov S.K., Rychshanova R.M., Selunskaya L.S., Telenkov V.N. Methods for early diagnosis of pregnancy in cows using rapid tests
The article presents data on the comparative analysis of two ELISA methods based on the detection of pregnancy antigens –OXILINE DG Blue Eyes and IDEXX Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test. The sensitivity of the OXILINE DG Blue Eyes and IDEXX Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test ELISA kits in this study was 100,0 % equal; the specificity of the kits was 100,0% and 78,38%, respectively. The simplicity of the OXILINE DG Blue Eyes kit and its high suitability for use in the field are shown. Thefeatures of conducting these two tests are analyzed. Key words: pregnancy, cattle, cows, blood serum, enzyme immunoassay, ELISA, OXILINE DG Blue Eyes, IDEXX Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test, COWTEST, pregnancy-associated proteins, pregnancy antigen, PAG.
18 Tselueva N.I. Monitoring of the epizootic situation for bovine leukemia virus infection in the Smolensk region
The characteristic of the recent epizootic situation for bovine leukemia virus infection in the Smolensk region is given. Key words: bovine leukemia virus, monitoring, recovery, retroviruses, epizootic situation.
21 Sibgatullova A.K., Vlasov M.E., Titov I.A. Genetic markers of the African swine fever virus
The review provides information about genetic markers of the African swine fever virus. Determination the nucleotide sequence of individual genes or non-coding regions of DNA, establishing nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed regions of DNA, searching for repetitive sequences or individual copies of known repeats allows to compare and differentiate virulent and avirulent strains and isolates of the agent, which is necessary for a more detailed molecular epizootological analysis of outbreaks. Key words: genetic markers, African swine fever virus, multigenic families, restriction analysis, sequencing, genotyping.
26 Rozhdestvenskaya T.N., Tomina E.V., Nikolaeva I.P., Chachanidze-Aspanidze L.N., Smorchkova T.N., Borisov V.V. Avian Pox
The article is devoted to avian pox. Despite the fact that avian pox has been known for a very long time, it still poses a serious problem for industrial poultry farming. Epizootology of the disease, clinical signs, diagnosis and preventive measures are reported in the article. The main method for preventing avian pox is to immunize chickens with a live vaccine. The technique of intradermal administration of the vaccine is described. A brief description of the live cultural vaccine against avian pox produced by «SPE «AVIVAC» Ltd. is presented in the article. Key words: avian pox, vaccination, injector.
30 Safiullin R.T., Stolbov E.V. Swine isosporosis and eimeriosis
Isosporosis and eimeriosis are protozoal diseases the most dangerous for young pigs and widespread (especially in industrial type farms). They cause significant economic damage. The review provides information about their etiology, epizootology, pathogenesis, symptoms, immunity, pathomorphology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Key words: diagnosis, treatment, isosporosis, pig, eimeriosis.
37 Brigadirov Yu.N., Kotsarev V.N., Sachnina L.Yu., Manzhurina O.A., Lobanov A.E., Likhacheva I.L. The influence of alpha- and gamma-interferons on immune-biochemical status, microbiocenosis of the genital tract and reproductive function of sows
The aim of the researches is to study the influence of alpha- and gamma-interferons on the immune-biochemical status and microbial landscape of sow genital tracts during different physiological periods of the reproductive cycle. Studies on pharmacological effects of pig recombinant alpha- and gamma-interferons were carried on 27 sows, which were taken in an experiment on 103 – 105 days of pregnancy, and divided into two groups. The first group of sows (n=13) were given parenterally alpha- and gamma- interferons (10 ml) per animal three times with 48-hour intervals 8 – 10 days before farrowing. The second group of animals (n=14) did not take drugs (control). The indicators of immune and bio-chemical status, components and quantities of the sows’ genital tract microbiota during pregnancy, for 3 – 4 days of lactation, and before weaning of piglets, were determined. It was found that parenterally application of alpha- and gamma-interferons in sows reduces the pressing of opportunistic pathogenic microflora and pathogenic microflora, induces the stabilization the normal flora of the genital tract, increases the immune-biochemical status and improves the reproductive performance of animals. Key words: saws, piglets, blood, immune-biochemical status, microbiota, alpha- and gamma-interferons, reproductive performance.
42 Nariznyi A.G., Dzhamaldinov A.Ch., Anisimov A.G. Effects of different diluents on boar semen quality
The possibility for the use of the semen plain salt diluents compared to the expensive multicomponent media for the semen dilution and short-term storage within 2 – 4 hours has been studied. The efficiency of such an application process was ascertained, since there was an insufficient decline in the values of the semen qualitative parameters. A comparison of two methods of insemination with the use of these diluents also proved the reason of their application. In addition, the fraction method for insemination for pigs was more efficient. The research into the causes of reduction in the active sperm numbers per insemination dose for the ewes proved the advantages of the citrate-and-sulphate-based extender. The best performance indicators were recorded in this group of ewes. The plain salt diluents as the semen extenders can induce a 1,5 – 2,0-fold decrease in the active sperm count per dose, when it is required for insemination of the ewes. Key words: media, boars, sows, artificial insemination, efficiency.
45 Jakupov I.Т., Zharkimbayeva Zh.Z., Zharylgassynov S.S. Device for diagnostic pregnancy and infertility in cows
A device has been developed for diagnosing pregnancy and infertility in cows, based on the parameters of the anatomical and topographic location of the genital organs, the nature of the mucus, the color of the mucous membranes of the genital tract. Key words: cows, device, diagnostics, pregnancy, infertility.
49 Popova O.S., Baryshev V.A., Rogacheva E.V. Industrial tests of the new phytorial surgery complex
The object of the study was a new phytosorption complex, developed at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the St. Petersburg State Medical University. Phytosorption complex contains as a formative substance a set of sorbents, which are a matrix for extracts of plants, provides their delivery to the animal's body. In the intestine, ion metabolism is carried out, sorption is additionally carried out, and toxic substances are eliminated from the body. To study the effect of the phytosorption complex on the organism of piglets of weaners, two groups of animals were created, experimental and control, with 20 heads in each. Piglets of the experimental group in addition to the standard diet were administered a new phytobiotic complex, at a dose of 1 g/kg, for 10 days. The animals of the control group were given food, according to the physiological norms of feeding without any additives. At the beginning and end of the experiment, the pigs of both groups were weighed. The weight of animals at weaning was 7,6±1,1 kg in the experimental group, and 8,7±1,7 kg in the control group. Thus, the increase in body weight was in the experimental group in relation to the control, 4 %. We conducted a hematological analysis of the blood, assessed the number of case cases in the groups, the incidence of diarrhea, and analyzed the results of changes in body weight at the beginning and end of the experiment. When analyzing blood, there was a tendency to increase the hemoglobin and erythrocyte content, due to the increase in metabolic processes. It was found, as well as an increase in the total protein and alkaline phosphatase in the blood. Thus, the optimal dose has been confirmed to correct weaning stress and increase the productivity of weaned pigs. Key words: piglets-weaners, stress, phytosorption complex.
52 Shumilin Yu.A., Nikulin I.A. Analysis of heart rate variability in horses and dogs by the method of histograms
When using histograms to estimate heart rate variability, the tolerance field limit for dogs is 0,5≤RR≤0,85, and for horses 1,5≤RR≤2,5. If the entire histogram is within the tolerance field, the process is statistically stable and requires no intervention. Due to statistical analysis and graphical reflection of the available quantitative information about the duration of RR intervals, it is possible to establish the nature, degree and cause of heart rate variability in healthy and sick animals, which is not always possible with the traditional method of electrocardiogram analysis. The proposed method of constructing a histogram by the sample size of 200 cardiac cycles is quite representative, which makes it possible to say with confidence that three important parameters of the histogram – its center, width and shape – are representative for the whole process. Key words: dog, horse, electrocardiography, heart rate variability, sinus arrhythmia.
56 Kozlova I.V., Videnin V.N., Batrakov A.Y., Santuryan Yu.G., Panarin E.F. Effect of silver-containing gel on the healing of skin and muscle wounds in animals
Studies conducted on cats with postoperative wounds and rats with experimental skin and muscle wounds showed that the gel based on Poviargol and Methyluracil prevents mechanical contamination of injured tissues, suppresses concomitant bacterial infections, reduces inflammatory response and accelerates the healing of damaged tissues, without showing local irritating and allergic actions. Key words: gel, antiseptic, bacteria, inflammation, cat, healing, Poviargol, rat, tissue regeneration.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
59 Andreeva E.Yu., Rodionova T.N., Strogov V.V. Determination of subchronic toxicity of the mineral complex based on iron, zinc and copper nanopowders
Studies have carried out an assessment of the subchronic toxicity of the mineral complex based on iron, copper, and zinc nanopowders. An injection form of the drug was developed, which consists of the following components: iron, zinc and copper nanopowders, propylene glycol, Tween 80 and distilled water. The experiments were performed under standard laboratory conditions on non-linear white rats in an equal sex ratio. The animals were divided into three experimental groups, depending on the dose of the preparation: 75, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The drug was administered intraperitoneally for 30 days, 7 times a week, followed by evaluation of the morphological and biochemical parameters of the blood of white rats on days 14 and 30 of the experiment. The absence of negative effects of subchronic introduction of the drug on hemo- and erythropoiesis in the body of white rats was revealed, which is confirmed by an increase in hemoglobin content and the number of erythrocytes relative to the control by 1,3 and 1,2 times, respectively, when exposed to a dose close to therapeutic. An increase in the activity of the AST and ALT enzymes, as well as the presence of hyperglycemia with the administration of the drug in high doses by the end of the 14th and 30th days of the experiment compared with the control, was noted. A decrease in the total protein concentration to 46,7 g/l and albumin to 29,8 g/l compared with the control (67,0 g/l and 34,3 g/l, respectively) was noted with the administration of the drug at a dose of 500 mg/ kg. The revealed changes can presumably be due to the duration of the use of the drug in large doses, and also indicate the initial stage of intoxication in the internal organs of white rats. Key words: metal nanopowders, iron deficiency anemia, subchronic toxicity.
TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
62 Zhukov V.M. Strategy of development of the pathological anatomy of animals
The aim of the study was to substantiate the strategy of development of the pathological anatomy of animals. The introduction of new educational standards will be effective in the absence of evolutionary and revolutionary of these changes. The maintenance of current developments in veterinary education includes experience in forensic-veterinary expertise in leading higher veterinary schools. Development planning the relationship veterinary professionals with animal owners must be based on surgeon ethics. Integration of pathological anatomy of animals with basic and functional disciplines is based on preparing graduates for veterinary diagnostic, expert monitoring, management, industrial engineering, project, advisory and research activities. Inductive and deductive methods of cognition of animal diseases contribute to the development of diagnostic pathological features of animal anatomy and its practical application as a science in the preparation of veterinary specialists. Key words: education, ethics, pathological anatomy, veterinarian, veterinary.