CONTENTS №4-2023

3 Orlyankin B.G., Verkhovsky O.A., Aliper T.I. Innate and acquired antiviral immunity

The review summarizes the current understanding of innate and acquired antiviral immunity. Mechanisms of immunity development in response to viruses are outlined, alongside the ways viruses escape the host’s immunity mechanisms. Key words: viruses, innate and acquired immunity, cell-mediated and humoral factors.



13 Ovchinnikov R.S., Samylina I.V., Gaynullina A.G., Savinov V.A. Opportunistic yeast fungi in companion animals in the Moscow region

Animal diseases, in the pathogenesis of which yeast fungi are involved, currently pose an important problem of veterinary medicine. This article presents an analysis of the prevalence of opportunistic yeast fungi of the genus Candida, Malassezia, Rhodotorula and Aureobasidium in companion animals in the Moscow region. During mycological examination of 740 animals suspected of fungal diseases, yeast fungi were detected in 23,6 % of cases. They were represented by species of the genera Malassezia (51 %), Candida (35 %), Rhodotorula (7 %) and Aureobasidium (7 %). A comparative analysis of the occurrence of opportunistic yeasts in dogs, cats and other animal species has been carried out, and the main localization sites of these fungi have been identified. The data obtained indicate a wide spread of opportunistic yeast fungi in domestic animals, as well as the emergence of new, atypical pathogens. Key words: mycoses, Malassezia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Aureobasidium, companion animals, opportunistic mycoses, yeast, yeast fungi, pathogenic fungi, opportunistic fungi.



20 Mironova R.I., Titareva G.M., Marinin L.I., Timofeev V.S., Tyurin E.A., Shishkova N.A., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A.  Properties of Bacillus anthracis crops isolated from paleontological finds and soil samples taken in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

This article describes the isolation of Bacillus anthracis strains from samples of biomaterials from cave lion cubs, as well as soil samples taken from a depth of zero to six meters, taken in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and studied in the FBUN SRC M&B.  Strains of B. anthracis were isolated from soil samples in the tunnel from a depth of 2, 3 and 4 m. A common feature of these strains is their preservation in permafrost conditions, from which they were extracted as a result of paleontological excavations. From soil samples of one pit, three genetically distinct strains were detected. One strain belongs to B.Br.001/002 and genome analysis showed that it is closest to the Yamal strains, despite the remoteness of Yamal from Yakutia. Two other strains contribute to two different branches of A.Br.008/011, one of the remarkable polytomies described so far in the species B. anthracis. Key words: Bacillus anthracis, soil samples, genomic analysis.


25 Mannapova R.T., Shaikhulov R.R. Reactions in the B-system of immunity and the productivity of geese under the influence of an enzyme with adaptogens against the background of candidamicosis

Candidamicosis of the digestive tract of geese in the last decade brings significant economic damage to the caterpillar industry of all countries of the world, including Russia. The lethality of goslings can reach up to 80 – 100 %. They cause natural violations of the mechanisms of morphofunctional formation and development of organs of the B-system of immunity, leading to the development of secondary immunodeficiencies, manifested in the form of destructive changes – a decrease in the areas of immunocompetent structures, indicating their significant immunological depletion. Traditional antimycotic therapy is not sufficient to restore the immunomorphological activity of the organs of the B-immune system. Complete restoration of the morphofunctional activity of the immunocompetent structures of the Fabricius bag and spleen was observed only against the background of complex enzyme therapy with lithikase with probiotic and propolis. Candidamycosis of the digestive contributed to a significant decrease in the egg productivity of geese. The use of the enzyme liticase in combination with adaptogens contributed to an increase in egg productivity and quality indicators of goose eggs. Key words: сandidamycosis, digestive tract, B-system of immunity, Fabricius bag, spleen, lymph nodes, egg productivity.



30 Malakhova L.S., Omarov A.A., Surov A.I., Karpova E.D. Reproductive function of goats in the anestral period and characteristics of the resulting offspring

Currently, the breeding of meat breeds of goats is becoming popular in our country. The development of meat goat breeding in our country has great prospects due to the fact that the rapid spread of African swine fever (ASF) has recently posed a significant threat to Russian livestock breeding. Taking into account the specific aspects of keeping and feeding, meat goats are most suitable for breeding in private households of the population as an alternative to pigs. The products produced by meat goats are rich in nutrients and useful for the human body. However, the products produced by meat goats do not sufficiently meet the needs of the population. This is closely related to some unresolved problems, among which issues related to the organization of reproduction occupy an important place. The article presents the results on the effectiveness of stimulation hunting in goats during the anestral period with progestogenic and gonadotropic drugs, the reproductive qualities of female goats were evaluated. The growth and development of the resulting offspring up to two months of age was studied. Hormonal treatment of goats, including subcutaneous injections of progesterone in combination with gonadotropin Follimag® proved to be quite effective and ensured the onset of estrus in 90,0 % of animals. The fertilization rate according to the results of goat feeding from artificial insemination with freshly obtained sperm was 74,1 %, with fertility of 165,0 %. At the height of the sexual season, goats who gave birth showed high sexual activity and were re-inseminated in the autumn period at no additional cost. Goats who gave birth in the first half of September, 80,0 % showed hunting after 45 days and were inseminated. The live weight of young animals at birth averaged 3,31±0,69 and 3,46±0,68 in goats. At 2 months of age, the live weight was 15,11±0,35 in goats and 15,62±0,34 in goats, with an average daily increase of 196,20±13,73 and 202,60±14,18 grams, respectively. The initial live weight of goats increased by 4,56 in goats by 4,51 times. The safety of goats up to 2 months of age was quite high and amounted to 96,9 %. By the age of two months, the massiveness index in goats increased by 13,2 %, in goats by 15,1 %, the elongation index by 7,1 % and 9,4 % and the downness index by 5,2 % and 6,3 %. Key words: goats, estrus stimulation, anestral period, hormones, progesterone, Follimag®, first-generation crossbreeds.


34 Denisenko V.Yu., Kuzmina T.I. Influence of estradiol on the functional status and calcium homeostasis of bull spermatozoa

Using the chlortetracycline test, the effect of estradiol on the functional state of spermatozoa and the level of calcium in intracellular stores of male gametes was studied. Incubation of bovine spermatozoa for 4 hours in the presence of estradiol and subsequent treatment with LPC (reagent that stimulates the acrosomal reaction), as well as separately with guanosine diphosphate (GDP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP), dbcAMP and PRL did not reveal any changes in the ratio of male gametes with different functional states. A significant decrease in the number of capacitated spermatozoa and an increase in the number of acrosome-reactive cells was noted under the combined action of these compounds only in the presence of dbcAMP and PRL. Monitoring of indicators of membrane-bound calcium (chlortetracycline test) in spermatozoa preloaded with the protein kinase A inhibitor compound H-89 and estradiol showed that after the addition of dbcAMP or PRL separately, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular depots is activated.  With their combined action, an additional release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores was noted. The use of the protein kinase C inhibitor compound Ro 31-8220 at incubation did not affect the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores after the adding of dbcAMP or PRL separately. The additional release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores of spermatozoa was not noted in the case of common impact of dbcAMP with PRL In general, the results of the experiments indicate stimulation the functional status transformation (capacitation-acrosomal reaction) of spermatozoa under the joint action of dbcAMP and PRL at the stage of the acrosomal reaction. These changes are determined by fluctuations in the intracellular Ca2+ content and are regulated by protein kinase C. Key words: estradiol, bovine spermatozoa, protein kinases, capacitation, acrosomal reaction, calcium.



39 Vatnikov Yu.A., Sotnikova E.D., Biakhova V.M., Petrukhina O.A., Semenova V.I., Rudenko A.A. Clinical and pathogenetic characteristics of the development of hepatocardial syndrome in dogs with hepatosis

The paper considered the problem of the mechanisms of development of hepatocardial syndrome in dogs with hepatosis. This pathology is characterized by a significant decrease in the size of the pulmonary vein, the left atrium, a decrease in the longitudinal and transverse contractility of the myocardium of the left and right ventricles, a significant increase in the serum activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alanine and aspartic aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and alkaline phosphatase, troponin, triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, diene conjugates and ceruloplasmin, as well as a decrease in the concentration of albumin, glucose, a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase. Key words: dogs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, hepatosis, hepatocardial syndrome.



46 Maryushina T.O., Kryukovskaya G.M., Maryushina A.V., Soloshenko N.Yu., Timohov R.A. Hematological parameters of calves against the background of the use of the drug Superix

The article presents the hematological and clinical monitoring results of black-and-white heifers at the time their transfer from pasture to stable maintenance during use the drug Superix. It can be noted, that anisocytosis and poikilocytosis were observed in calves on the fifth day of transfer to the stalls. A decrease in the quantitative composition of erythrocytes to 4,89±0,26×1012/l and lymphocytes to 33,01±2,31% was revealed, which is below the reference values for the species and age of this animals. Positive dynamics in the morphology of erythrocytes and the quantitative composition of the shaped blood elements were established on the 15th day from the start of the use of the drug Superix. Positive changes in clinical and morphological parameters were noted in the experimental group compared with the control group. The effectiveness and clinical significance of the Superix complex in order to reduce the impact of stress in calves when transferring to stable maintenance has been proven. Key words: succinic acid, butaphosphane, calves, clinical blood parameters, morphology of erythrocytes.


52 Aleksandrova S.S. Precability of nutrients of compound feed depending on the intestinal microbiocenosis of broiler chicks when using probiotics

Studies on the digestibility of nutrients of compound feed and intestinal microbiocenosis in broiler chickens were carried out in the conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals. Chickens of the Cobb 500 cross were used. The main period of the experiment began when the birds reached an average live weight of 365 g at the age of 14 days. The control group of chickens consumed the main diet, consisting of complete feed and clean water. Chickens of the I experimental group in the main period of the experiment received a probiotic supplement Vetom 2 in drinking water at 50 mg/kg of chicken weight, chickens of the II experimental group received Lactobifadol in feed at 0,2 g per 1 kg of bird weight. The research results showed that the coefficients of digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in chickens of the first experimental group were higher by 4.1 and 1.8%, and in the second experimental group by 9,3 and 5,8% than in the control group. Only the coefficient of fat digestibility was distributed differently: in the control group it was higher by 1.6 and 2,6% than in the first and second experimental groups, respectively. After drinking the preparations, no pathogenic microflora was detected in the litter of chickens of the experimental groups. Conditionally pathogenic bacteria Proteus mirabilis were present in the litter of chickens of the control group in 2 cases out of 4, I of the experimental group also in 2 cases, II of the experimental group in 1 case of 4. Staphylococcus aureus was not found in the litter of chickens of the control group, I of the experimental group was present in 2 samples out of 4, II experimental group in 3 samples. The content of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in the litter of chickens of the II experimental group, where the chickens were fed with Lactobifadol, was significantly higher than in the other groups. Bacillis spp was present in all samples of the first experimental group, in 2 out of 4 samples of the control group, and in 3 samples of the second experimental group. Key words: digestibility coefficients, broiler chickens, Vetom 2, Lactobifadol, intestinal microbiocenosis, probiotics.



59 Savchenkova I.P. Safety of working with animal cellular cultures in laboratories

The main principles of biological and chemical safety of work with animal cellular cultures: primary, diploid, immortalized, malignant, genetically transformed are presented. They are intended primarily for academic research laboratories. Key words: cell cultures, primary, diploid, immortalized, malignant, genetically transformed, stem cells, safety.


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CONTENTS №4-2023