CONTENTS №5-2020

3 Svintsov R.A., Abramova E.G., Zhulidov I.M., Selezneva A.G., Razzhivin A.V., Usachev E.A., Gorbunova O.V. Morphofunctional state of the organism of horses-producers of immune serums in the production of immunobiological drugs 

The review summarizes the material of domestic and foreign studies on pathological changes in the body of horses-producers in conditions of intensive production operation in the manufacture of heterologous immunobiological drugs. Production exploitation of horses, which consists in massive antigenic irritation and significant blood loss as a result of blood poisoning, induces the launch of various response compensatory mechanisms in the body of producers, whose resource is limited and depends on the initial state of health of the animal. It is shown that blood bias inevitably causes post-hemorrhagic anemia, which is normochromic and hypochromic in nature. Over the course of further exploitation, anemia becomes hypoplastic. On the part of white blood indicators, blood loss in producers leads to post-hemorrhagic leukocytosis. Biochemical parameters change in the direction of increasing globulin fractions and reducing the amount of albumin. The introduction of antigens causes an increase in the content of certain amino acids-glycine, glutamic acid and the appearance of new amino acids (tyrosine, threonine), which are not found in the serum of intact animals. The increase in the cycles of immunization of producers with toxins and anatoxins is accompanied by a natural increase in the content of residual nitrogen, bilirubin. At the same time, the introduction of viral antigens to horses, despite the long-term operation of horses, is accompanied by a slight change in the amount of bilirubin. The review presents data on the development of amyloid degeneration of internal organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, etc.) in producers. It is shown that despite a wide variety of antigens and schemes of exploitation, the morphofunctional response of the organism of horses-producers of sera of different specificity has many common typical ways of development. Key words: producing horses, hyperimmunization, immune sera, amyloidosis, arthritis, post-hemorrhagic anemia, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, endocarditis. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.03-09   

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES 

10 Kochish I.I., Rodionova N.V., Biryukov K.N., Tyurin V.G., Mysova G.A., Potemkina N.N. The use of biological methods of processing organic waste for disinfection of the causative agent of tuberculosis  

Scientific data are presented on the duration of the survival of the causative agent of tuberculosis (using the atypical strain of mycobacterium B5 as an example) in organic waste from livestock farming using the bacteriological method of processing cattle manure based on anaerobic fermentation in thermophilic mode. It has been established that the time for disinfection of organic waste from the causative agent of tuberculosis (using the atypical strain of mycobacterium B5 as an example), during anaerobic fermentation, are directly dependent on the characteristics of the biocenosis due to the presence of separate active groups of thermophilic microorganisms participating in its formation. Based on scientific results, it follows that the biotechnological method of processing organic waste based on anaerobic fermentation in the thermophilic mode of fermentation ensures their disinfection from the causative agent of tuberculosis and can be used in veterinary and sanitary measures to eliminate this disease in dysfunctional livestock farms and to obtain safe organic fertilizer for the needs of agriculture. Key words: organic waste, disinfection, anaerobic fermentation, tuberculosis pathogen, thermophilic regimen. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.10-14  

14 Polyakov I.D., Ivanova L.G. The new immunobiological drug BINOVAC®IDD for treatment of cattle hoof diseases  

The object of the present publication is the provision of the new immunobiological medicines BINOVAC®IDD for use in a method of treating digital (DD), interdigital dermatitis (ID) and interdigital phlegmon (IP) in cattle. Fungal antigens and their analogues, having a powerful effect on human and animal cells in vitro and in vivo, can be used in the creation of polyvalent immunobiological agents, for controlling animal diseases, by affecting the body's defence system. Our studies have shown that with the help of BINOVAC®IDD (an analogue of the cell wall of fungi), it was possible to treat DD, ID, IP of cattle. Therapeutic effect was in 70 % to 75 % of animals. Key words: colloidal polysaccharide,  treating digital, interdigital dermatitis and interdigital phlegmone in cattle. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.14-18 

INFECTION DISEASE 

19 Nefedchenko A.V.,  Koteneva S.V., Glotova T.I.,  Glotov A.G. Frequency of detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 in cattle  during outbreaks of infectious diseases  on big dairy farms 

The results of the detection of the BoHV-4 in cattle during outbreaks of infectious diseases in big dairy farms of Siberia using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time are presented. The glycoprotein L gene sequences were used as amplification targets. According to PCR results, the virus genome was found in 27,7 % of samples from animals with respiratory, gastrointestinal and gynecological diseases. Most often, the virus was present in nasal swabs of calves aged 2 – 3 months (80,0 %), lungs (46,2 %) and bronchial lymphnodes (38,5 %) with pneumonia. In cows, the virus was detected in 20 % of samples with diarrhea and in 10 % of samples with gynecological pathology. Most often, BoHV-4 was present as a mono agent. In respiratory diseases of calves, it was found as a mono agent in 58,1 % of the samples, and in association with BoHV-1 in 21,6 %, with cattle coronavirus (BoCV) in 20,3 % of samples of the biomaterial. In gastrointestinal diseases in calves, the virus was present as a mono agent. In gynecological pathology in cows, BoHV-4 was detected as a mono agent in 10 % of samples, and in association with the BVDV1 in 6 % of cases. The presence of some viruses simultaneously in an animal can enhance the severity of the pathological process during respiratory and gynecological pathologies of animals due to their synergistic interaction with each other. Key words: cattle; herpesvirus of the fourth type (BoHV-4), glycoprotein L, genome, real-time polymerase chain reaction. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.19-23  

24 Makavchik S.A., Suchinin A.A., Engashev S.V., Engasheva E.S. The effectiveness of Azicycline in respiratory infections of calves of bacterial etiology 

Firm "NVC Agrovetzaschita" developed a new comprehensive antimicrobial based Doxycycline, Azithromycin and Emidonol. The prospects of complex use of antibiotics on the basis of Doxycycline and Azithromycin, probiotic and destructor bacterial biofilms in the treatment of diseases of bacterial etiology of calves. K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae with a hypermucoid phenotype and a classical phenotype were virulent, differed in biochemical activity, sensitivity to different groups antibiotics. The best result was obtained in group, including antibiotics, probiotics and destructor bacterial biofilms. In this group of animals set the fastest recovery time (5 – 7 days), the Group is receiving only an antibiotic  –  10 days. Key words: azicycline, cKP classical  K. pneumoniae, hvKp –hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, probiotics, calves, weight gain, safety, efficiency. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.24-27 

28 Merzlenko O.V., Noskov S.B., Gorbach A.A., Pozdnyakova V.N., Masalikina Y.P. The efficacy of Tilodox P in treatment of bacterial infections in broilers 

The article presents the results of field trials of the new antibacterial drug Tilodox P (developed by EUROVET LLC.) in broilers. It possesses a wide spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and Mycoplasmas, which is due to the potentiating action of the two antibiotics. Efficacy of Tilodox P was compared to monodrugs. It was established that drug possesses high therapeutic efficacy, decreases mortality and maintains weight gain. Recommendations on the use of Tilodox P in broilers were given. Key words: doxycycline, tylosin, antibiotics, broilers. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.28-31 

INVASIVE DISEASE 

32 Salimov B.S., Otaboev Kh.E. The spread of bioecology and types of development of trematodes parasitizing among sheep of Uzbekistan 

Currently, trematodes Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Calicophoron calicophorum, Liorchis scotiae are spread common sheep of Uzbekistan. F. gigantica is distributed throughout the irrigated and partly piedmont biocenoses and has paramount importance in the pathology of fascioliasis. F. hepatica is absent only in the northwestern part of Uzbekistan. Transitional hosts of F. gigantica are freshwater mollusks Lumnaea auricularia, L. bactriana, L. subdisjuncta, L. impura, and for F. hepatica – L. truncatula. Both types of fasciol develop on fasciolide class. D. dendriticum, as well as F. hepatica, is absent only in the northwestern part of Uzbekistan. This trematode develops to the dicrocelial type, parasite successfully overwinter in the organism of transitional hosts, infection of animals with fascioli is observed all year round, and dicrocelial from early spring to autumn months. Paramphistomatoses – gastrotiliaxosis, calicoforosis, sheep liorhosis of sheep were first detected in 2012 in Samarkand and Tashkent regions. They have focal character and are accompanied by death and forced slaughter of sheep. The extent of sheep damage varies from 33 to 100 percent, and the invasion intensity is from 592 to 4 thousand specimens. paramphistomat. Paramphistomatomas also develop according to the fasciolid class. Key words: trematodes, fascioli, dicrocelium, paramphistomats, gastrotiliacs, calicophores, liorchis, mollusks, ants, cercariae, adolescarius, metacercariae. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.32-34 

35 Fatakhov K.F., Devrishov D.A., Litvinov O.B., Devrishov A.D. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the drug prolonged action Lipomaс 2% for helminthosis of small cattle 

In the farm «Ibragimov» in sheep of Lezgin breed infection of sheep with eggs of helminths Haemonchus contortus and Nematodirus spathiger from SEM was revealed. Trichostrongyli-dae as well as the larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria. Identified the antiparasitic efficacy of the drug prolonged action Lipomac 2 % against eggs strongylidae and larvae dictyocaul. New drug prolonged action Lipomac 2 % in dose 0,2 mg/kg of body weight has 100 % efficacy against larvae dictyocaul and eggs strongylidae small cattle. After introduction of the drug, no changes in the physiological state are observed in animals. Key words: Long-acting drug, Lipomaс 2 %, sheep, worms, effectiveness. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.35-37 

37 Zhirkov I.N. Prevention of cattle blindness after hurting with thelaziosis using the retrobulbar novocainic blocade in the field conditions 

It is proposed to use retro-bulbar novocaine blockade to to prevent vision loss in beef cattle suffering from teliasiosis. The procedure can be performed in the field with limited use of additional medications and water, as well as without an assistant. The details of blockade technique for cattle of all age and gender groups are described. Key words: eye diseases, cattle, blindness, thelaziosis, novocain blockade. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.37-38 

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY 

39 Fedotov S.V., Yahaev I.M., Degtyarev V.P. Prevention of alimentary infertility in cows of holstein breed  

One of the reasons for the occurrence of nutritional infertility in cattle is the imbalance of diets for trace elements. Trace elements are part of the main enzymes in animals. Properly organized mineral nutrition of animals provides increased fertility, the quality of offspring, productivity, and efficient use of feed. We developed modifications to the operation of the formation of isolated sections of the scar, abomasum, intestines, and the application of a fistula to the pancreatic duct, which made it possible to study in detail the nature of the supply of enzymes to the cavity of the digestive tract. Saliva in heifers of a random age did not exhibit carbohydrase properties. Scar fluid hydrolyzed and fermented starch well without significant accumulation of glucose in the substrate. The maximum activity of pregastric amylase is observed in heifers when feeding concentrated feeds. The mucous membrane of the pancreas and intestines of the heifers was poor in amylase and maltase; therefore, the possibility of parietal starch hydrolysis was limited. In the digestive tract in heifers of all carbohydrates, fiber is the slowest fermented. The cellulolytic activity of the chyme of the cecum is much less than the scar content. The digestibility of fiber in cattle is directly correlated with their age. The drug Polychelate and the feed additive Рolysoli microelement are effective in preventing infertility in heifers of a random age. They help regulate sexual functions and reduce the index of insemination Key words: nutritional infertility, cattle, enzymes, mineral feed supplement. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.39-44 

44 Kashkovskaya L.М., Balyshev A.V., Abramov S.V. Optimization of cow therapy for endometritis 

The article presents the results of treatment of cows with a diagnosis of acute postpartum endometritis with the help of complex therapy with the inclusion of the drug Ketoprofen 10 %. It is proved that therapy with its use provides recovery of 95 % of cows, reduces recovery time by 1,5 – 2 days in comparison with monotherapy with an antibacterial drug. Key words: endometritis, cows, therapy, Кetoprofen. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.44-47 

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE 

48 Shkuratova I.A., Belousov A.I., Khalturina L.V., Busygina O.A. Metabolic profile in dairy cows and breeding bulls  

The aim of the study was to identify the metabolic profile of highly productive cows and bulls. Clinically healthy Holstein cows (n=1184) and bulls (n=214) were selected. The studies found that the greatest differences were found with respect to aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, potassium, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, iron, creatine phosphatekinase, lactate dehydrogenase, triglycerides, cholesterol. The creatinine level in the blood plasma of bulls averaged 120,21±23,26 μmol/L, which is 27,0 % higher than in the blood of cows. The enzymatic activity of AST, CPK and LDH in bulls-producers is on 9 – 20 % higher than in cows. The greatest differences were revealed in the content of creatine kinase, which was 183,58±52,49 U/L on average for producer bulls, which is 19,57 % higher than for cows. The activity of hepatic enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in blood cows was higher by 12,2 % and 15,8 %, respectively. So, in cows, the activity of GGT was 16,38±4,69 U/L, the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase was 27,42±11,74  U/L. The level of total cholesterol in blood plasma bulls was on average 3,04±0,82 mmol/l, while in cows higher values were noted  –  4,26±1,59 mmol/l. The average potassium content in the blood of bulls is 5,30±0,81 mmol/l, while in cows this indicator was at the level of 4,43±1,16 mmol/ l. Metabolic profile of bulls is characterized by a high content of inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in the blood. The priority factors that determine the metabolic differences in the biochemical profile of animals of different sexes include feeding, exploitation, productivity, physiological characteristics of animals: muscle mass, physical activity, growth characteristics. Key words: clinical biochemistry, highly productive cows, bulls, biochemical parameters, features of animals of different sexes, metabolism. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.48-53 

53 Betin A.N. Use of a probiotic drug BioPlus YC to pigs 

Probiotic BioPlus YC at a dose of 400 g/t of feed when applied to sows in the last 1/3 of gestation and the lactation period, as well as to suckling pigs and during rearing, has a positive effect on their productivity. Key words: biochemical blood test, pigs, probiotic, productivity. 

DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2020.23.5.53-57 

57 Afanasieva A.N., Afanasiev S.A., Vyshlov E.V., Sultanov V.S. The special aspects of ecg in rates with experimental myocardial infarction and ropren drug administration 

The cardioprotective effects of a polyprenol preparation Ropren in a form of oil solution were evaluated based on ECG data in Wistar rats with experimental myocardial infarction. The study showed that seven-day-long pretreatment with Ropren significantly decreased the lethality rate in the animal model of myocardial infarction. Animals administered with Ropren had a higher electrophysiological stability of the myocardium following experimental myocardial infarction. The assumption is made that this effect associated with the morphological state of the myocardium may beneficially influence the efficiency of myocardial regeneration and the postinfarction cardiac remodeling.  Key words: myocardial infarction, Ropren, ECG, cardioprotective effect. 

FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY 

61 Kolesnichenko I.S. Dedicated to military veterinary specialists of Russia 

 

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CONTENTS №5-2020