CONTENTS №5-2022

3 Makarov V.V., Dinchenko O.I., Petrov A.K., Kulikov E.V., Ryzhova D.D. Smallpox and peste des petits ruminants – an emergent danger

This advisory contains technical details on two transboundary infections in small ruminants whose epizootic potential has been increasing ominously in recent times. The paper uses the most recent sources of material and discusses modern points of view on the problem. Key words: sheep pox, goat pox, peste des petits ruminants, epizootology, control, prognosis.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.03-11

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

14 Novikova S.V., Temirbulatov T.T. Prolonged cephalosporin in a therapy of hemophilic polyserositis in pigs

The article presents data on the effectiveness of the new injectable drug Ceftonite Forte for the treatment of piglets with hemophilic polyserositis. The study was conducted on the basis of the farms of the Saratov and Samara regions on piglets growing large white breed with a diagnosis of hemophilia. It has been established that a single injection of the drug Ceftonit Forte intramuscularly at a dose of 1 ml/40 kg of body weight provides 93 % therapeutic efficacy in hemophilia in piglets. Key words: piglets, ceftiofur, Ceftonit Forte, antibiotic therapy, hemophilia, therapeutic efficacy.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.14-19

INFECTION DISEASE

20 Fedorov A.I., Iskandarov M.I., Iskandarova S.S. Properties of brucella cultures isolated from reindeer

Susceptibility to brucellosis was recorded in 60 species of vertebrates, including reindeer. The 4th biovar of the species B. suis causes brucellosis in reindeer.  All brucella cultures obtained from reindeer, regardless of the geographical location of extraction, are shown to react alike when aniline dyed. Different B. suis biovars has a similar urease activity, but there is a clear difference between the 4th and other biovars regarding the stability of the urease activity at low pH values. Brucella cultures isolated from reindeer are in S-form with stable cultural and biochemical properties and retain their original properties during storage, which may indicate that this species of Brucella circulating in northern latitudes and affecting reindeer is unique. Many factors make it possible to revise the systematic position of the 4th biovar of the species B. suis. The peculiarity of biochemical, antigenic properties, which have been preserved for more than 60 years of cultivation in laboratory conditions, for one. Also, molecular genetic studies, as well as the presence of the main carrier of brucella - reindeer with a circulation of the pathogen independent of other animal species. Key words: reindeer brucellosis, brucella taxonomy, virulence, antigenicity, stability.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.20-26 

28 Belov S.V., Lunitsin A.V., Slivko I.A., Balashova E.A. Pathogenicity of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus isolate of the second type in experimental infection

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus belongs to the genus Lagovirus of the Caliciviridae family. The highly contagious disease caused by this virus is associated with the phenomena of thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, leading to an increase in the fibrinolytic activity of blood serum, an increase in the permeability of blood vessels, with necrotizing hepatitis, which causes generalized liver necrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which leads to death in lagomorphs [16]. This article presents studies to determine the incubation period after the introduction of an isolate of the virus of haemorrhagic disease of rabbits of the second type, the duration of the disease, mortality, the severity of clinical and pathological signs. Key words: rabbit hemorrhagic disease, rabbits, isolate, pathogenicity.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.28-31

32 Tsaturyan L.G., Sklyarov O.D., Fedyushin D.V., Kavanosyan V.V., Kuzmenko M.A., Abrahamyan V.V. Immunobiological properties of Bacillus anthracis vaccine strains

Anthrax vaccines from the Bacillus anthracis 55-VNIIVViM strain used today in the Russian Federation for preventive immunization of animals of different species often cause undesirable post-vaccination local and general reactions in goats of different breeds, sometimes with a fatal outcome. According to the results of these studies, it was found that adverse post-vaccination reactions in goats are caused by an increased number of live spores in the vaccine dose. It was found that the vaccine in a dose containing 5 million live spores provides the synthesis of antibodies in the body of animals in a titer not less than when the vaccine is administered in the dose recommended to date, containing according to the instructions for its use from 7 to 15 million live spores. Moreover, when the vaccine was administered at a dose of 5 million live spores in goats of different breeds, there were no manifestations of undesirable post-vaccination reactions during the entire observation period. The results of testing the vaccine in a reduced dose were confirmed in an experiment to control the immunogenic activity of the vaccine at a dose of 5+1  million live spores on guinea pigs. All vaccinated animals of the experimental group were protected from death after the introduction of an infecting culture of Bacillus anthracis strain M-71 in a dose of 1 million spores, with the death of 100% of unvaccinated guinea pigs of the control group. Key words: anthrax, immunogenicity, vaccine, safety, spores, protective properties.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.32-37

INVASIVE DISEASE

39 Arisov M.V., Panova O.A., Baranova M.V., Sysoeva N.Yu., Glamazdin I.G., Trofimova A.V. Development of anthelmintic resistance of strongylide horses in the Moscow region

The Strongylidae family includes causative agents of intestinal strongylosis in horses, which are widespread throughout the world and reduce the efficiency and productivity of animals. Due to the widespread use of anthelmintic drugs, the problem of developing helminth resistance to them arises. In strongylides, the development of a decrease in sensitivity to benzimidazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines and macrocyclic lactones is noted. To monitor the decline in the effectiveness of anthelmintic agents, it becomes important to evaluate the egg-reappearance period after deworming. The purpose of the work is to study the epizootological situation of helminthiases in horses in the farms of the Moscow region, to determine the risks of developing anthelmintic resistance of strongylids. 331 fecal samples from horses aged from 1 to 23 years old from private farms in the Moscow region were studied. The effectiveness of deworming was evaluated on horses aged 2 to 10 years, spontaneously infested with strongylides. The first group (44 horses) received albendazole at a dose of 7,5 mg/kg, the second group (40 horses) received ivermectin at a dose of 20 mg/100 kg of body weight. Strongylide anthelmintic resistance was studied by the Fecal Egg Reduction Method (FECRT). Nematode eggs were found in 48,9 % of horses, the vast majority being Strongylidae gen. spp. detected in 47,4 %. On the territory of Zelenograd, the development of strongylid resistance to albendazole was established, FECRT=86,6 %. In the Voskresensky district, resistance to ivermectin was noted, FECRT=85,7 %. Strongylid egg-reappearance period in the feces of horses after the use of albendazole and ivermectin was 56 days. Key words: horses, helminth eggs, nematodes, Strongylidae, Cyathostominae, Strongylinae, Parascaris equorum, deworming, anthelmintic resistance.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.39-44

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY

45 Valiullina D.F., Morozova D.D., Serebrennikova U.A. Dynamics of morphological and biochemical indicators of blood when using various treatment schemes for cow purulent-catarrhal endometritis

The article presents the results of evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of treatment regimens for acute postpartum catarrhal-purulent endometritis in cows. The paper presents the results of laboratory studies: morphological and biochemical parameters of blood were determined using different treatment regimens. For the experiment, from among the cows with acute postpartum catarrhal-purulent endometritis, three groups of animals, 5 animals each, were formed according to the principle of pair-analogs. The duration of treatment was 6 days. According to the results of the study, it was found that in the 2nd experimental group, in which the Activiton drug was additionally introduced, the animals recovered faster. Key words: blood, cow, morphology, biochemistry, genitals.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.45-49

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE

51 Tatarintsev S.А., Stekolnikov A.A. Surgical method of artificial urethral sphincter implantation in dogs with treatment of ureteral ectopia

Urinary incontinence in small pets is a significant problem in the modern world. This condition causes serious infectious complications in the bladder, ureters and kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease, and also it has a social significance. At last time, there are more cases of home dogs euthanasia because of inconvenience for the owners. The most common causes of urinary incontinence are ureteral ectopia and urethral sphincter insufficiency. Both of these conditions were studied as two independent diseases, but not considered as combined pathologies. This article describes the cases and identifies the percentage when the treatment of one disease did not lead to the disappearance of symptoms. A comprehensive approach to the treatment of the ureters ectopia is considered, the method of an artificial urethral sphincter implantation in dogs is described, the effectiveness and complications of this technique are revealed. Key words: ectopic ureter, urinary incontinence, urinary bladder, pathology of urinary tract, refractory urinary incontinence, urinary sphincter mechanism incontinence, artifitial urethral sphincter.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.51-53

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

54 Nikolaev S.V. Pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the body of lactating cows

The aim of the work was to study the pharmacokinetic properties of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-HPC) in the body of lactating cows. The concentration of progestin in plasma and milk was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. To do this, 7 pregnant cows were injected once intramuscularly with 20 ml of 12,5 % solution of 17-HPC in oil. Sampling was carried out before the introduction of the steroid, for 7 days, on the 14th, 21st and 28th days after injection. It was found that the average peak concentration of the substance in plasma is detected after 48 hours and is 78,4±7,9 ng/ml. By day 4 of the studies, the progestin concentration decreased by more than 2 times, and by day 7 by 4,6 times, amounting to 17,2±2,7 ng/ml. The average period of the maximum concentration of 17-HPC in the blood is observed after 54,9±4,8 hours, the elimination constant of the drug was 0,019, the half-life was 37,2 hours. The concentration of 17-HPC in milk was ten times higher than plasma. The rate of excretion of the steroid with milk on the second day after injection in cows with a daily milk production of 15 kg is about 8.6 mg. At the time of the last intake (day 28), the concentration of progestin in plasma and milk was 1,8±0,4 and 15±3 ng/ml, respectively. Thus, the conducted studies indicate that 17-HPC has a moderate prolonged period of excretion in the body of cows, while the main proportion of progestin is eliminated in the first week after injection. Key words: cattle, progestogens, 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics, elimination rate.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.54-57

59 Lashin A.P., Simonova N.V. Evaluation of correlations between hematological indicators and antioxidant status parameters in newborn calves on the background of phytocorrection

We studied the effect of phytoadaptogens on some hematological parameters in newborn calves and their correlation with the parameters of the antioxidant status. Newborn calves were divided into 4 groups (control and three experimental) with 10 heads in each. For 14 days, the animals of the experimental groups were orally administered, respectively, aralia tincture, ginseng tincture and magnolia vine tincture in a daily dose of 5 ml per head. The introduction of herbal remedies was accompanied by an increase in the number of erythrocytes relative to the calves of the control group by 12 – 15 %, the concentration of total protein and urea by 32 % and 36 %, respectively (aralia), by 28 % and 41 % (ginseng), by 33 % and 36 % (schisandra) (p<0,05). The glucose level was lower than in the control by 16 % with the introduction of aralia and magnolia vine preparations, by 12 % with ginseng. A comparative analysis of the influence of adaptogens showed the greatest efficiency of schizandra tincture, which was confirmed by the establishment of a greater number of correlations and a correlation between malondialdehyde and erythrocytes, leukocytes, total protein and urea. In addition, when using lemongrass tincture, a strong direct relationship was established in three pairs – catalase with the number of erythrocytes, the concentration of total protein and urea. Thus, the results of the correlation analysis allow us to state an increase in the strength of the relationship between the parameters of the antioxidant status and hematological parameters with the introduction of phytopreparations, which confirms the antioxidant properties of adaptogens that can correct pathological changes in the homeostasis system. Key words: aralia tincture, ginseng tincture, schizandra tincture, erythrocytes, leukocytes, total protein, glucose, urea, antioxidant status, correlations, calves.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.5.59-64

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CONTENTS №5-2022