CONTENTS №5-2024

3 Mukovnin A.A., Arakelyan P.K., Taranuha D.A., Dimova A.S., Dimov S.K., Yanchenko T.A. Specific prevention of brucellosis in animals (modern problems)

In the specific prevention of brucellosis in animals, the principle of manufacturability of vaccination schemes has acquired paramount importance: they must ensure long-lasting and intense immunity, unhindered identification of provoked brucellosis carriers as early as possible after vaccination, without creating problems with objective differential post-vaccination diagnosis. On public farms, the «old» schemes for animal vaccination, based on the use of vaccines from strains B.abortus 82 and B.abortus 19 by the subcutaneous method in regulated doses under new economic conditions began to lose their manufacturability, and in personal subsidiary plots and peasant farms they turned out to be are not technologically advanced at all and are not used in this regard. Conjunctival immunization of animals against brucellosis with a vaccine from the B.abortus 19 strain has proven to be feasible for farms of any type and is a reliable alternative to subcutaneous immunization of animals. The search for other technological schemes for vaccinating animals against brucellosis continues. Key words: cattle and small cattle, brucellosis, epizootic wellbeing, epizootic threats, specific prevention schemes, live vaccines from B. abortus 19, B. abortus 82 strains, manufacturability.



10 Isakova D.G., Kosovsky G.Yu., Chvala I.A., Galkina T.S., Doronin M.I., Kiselev A.M. Development and testing of inactivated sorbed whole-virion coronavirus vaccine (COVID-19) FOR carnivorous animals  Carnivac-Cov

A set of studies on the development and testing of an inactivated sorbed whole-virion coronavirus vaccine (COVID-19) for carnivores Carnivac-Cov was carried out. Optimal conditions for preparation of coronavirus antigen for vaccine preparation were selected. The vaccine proved the absence of its virulent properties and harmlessness when administered to susceptible animals - rabbits, minks and sables.  Blood serum samples were positive, containing sufficient antibodies to protect animals from infection. For all animals, maximum antibody titres were reached after the 35th day and decreased by the 180th day. According to the results of control infection of rabbits it was determined that the inoculation volume (1.0 cm3) of the developed vaccine contained 13,93 PD50 and 0,14 ImD50. According to the data of similar studies for minks these parameters were 8,0 PD50 and 0,25 ImD50, for sables – 6,06 PD50 and 0,33 ImD50. Key words: inactivated sorbed whole-virion vaccine against coronavirus infection (COVID-19), immunogenic component, specific antibodies, control infection, rabbits, sables, mink.



16 Naimanov A.Kh., Vangeli E.P., Tolstenko N.G., Gulyukin A.M., Mukovnin A.A. Intradermal injection of tuberculin for mammals with a needle-free injector in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

The article presents the results of a study of the diagnostic value of intradermal injection of tuberculin with a needle-free injector into the skin area of the zygomatic bone. In connection with the approval of new veterinary rules, where the ocular and palpebral tests were replaced by the palpebral test, that is, the increase in the value of the palpebral test, it was indicated that the main disadvantage of the palpebral test is the complexity, unsafety of introducing tuberculin into the lower eyelid and the impossibility of using needleless injectors for this. The authors have developed a method for intradermal injection of tuberculin using a needle-free injector into the skin area of the zygomatic bone, below the orbit of the eye. There are many blood vessels and nerve endings in this area; the presence of a smooth bone surface under the orbit of the eye makes the swelling at the site of allergen injection more prominent. The method has the sensitivity of an intradermal test in the area of the middle third of the neck and the specificity of a palpebral test, since it identifies a few animals with nonspecific reactions. Key words: tuberculosis, intradermal test, sensitivity, specificity, skin of the middle third of the neck, skin of the zygomatic bone, palpebral test, needle-free injector, PPD tuberculin for mammals.


21 Stafford V.V., Komina A.K., Gulyukin A.M. Detection of the PCV-2 genome in histological slices of parenchymal organs of pigs

The article presents data on the detection of the pig circovirus type 2 in the studied samples of parenchymal organs. The test material was slice using a cryostat. For the fluorescens in-situ hybridization, we used a DNA hybridization probe generated by us, consisting of 103 nucleotide bases labeled with fluorescein-12-dUTP 1/3. The reaction of the hybridization was performed in native cryotomic slices from the kidney, liver, spleen, lung and inguinal lymph node from pigs in which a positive result was obtained for the presence of the genome of circovirus type 2 during the study of blood serum by PCR. As a result of the analysis of histological slices, after hybridization reaction with a labeled DNA probe a positive reaction of the presence of the virus genome was obtained in slices of the lung and inguinal lymph node. At the same time, in the inguinal lymph node, the intensity and number of positive areas were significantly higher than in the lung. Thus, in the inguinal lymph node, more than 30 positive signals were detected in one field of vision, with a 630 magnification. We believe that such a difference in the localization of the signal may indicate virus carriage or a chronic course of the disease. The results obtained show the tropism of the virus and create the basis for studying the pathogenesis of the disease and the development of the immunosuppressive effect of PCV-2 in pigs. Key words: FISH, hybridization probe, histology, porcine circovirus, virus.



24 Safiullin R.T., Kachanova E.O., Tashbulatov A.A. Complex scheme for prevention of coccidiosis in broiler chickens

Diclazuril 2,5 % was used as a therapeutic and prophylactic drug for coccidiosis in broilers in a complex control scheme against coccidiosis. Diclazuril was used at a dose of 2,5 ml per 1 liter of drinking water continuously for 48 hours with the following regimen: at 9 – 10, 16 – 17 and 24 – 25 day old chickens. To increase the resistance of the chickens’ body, a biogenic stimulant drug, ASD, fraction 2, was prescribed one day before Diclazuril was given and for two days together. ASD was prescribed at the rate of 20 ml per 1 liter of drinking water (72 hours) without restrictions. The complex drug Kenokoks 4 % was used in the recommended dose to reduce the invasion caused by Eimeria oocysts, for the disinfestation of poultry houses before settling with young broilers. An complex control scheme against coccidiosis in broilers had a positive impact on the level of biosecurity of poultry houses for raising broiler chickens, on the safety of young animals and on average daily weight gain. The presented scheme, when tested under production conditions, ensured 94,9 % intensive efficacy. Key words: eimeriosis, complex control scheme, Diclazuril, Kenokoks, ASD, efficacy.



32 Nikitin V.V., Plemyashov K.V., Korochkina E.A. Diametr of ovulatory follicle  induced by exogenous GnRH as a predictor of thigh-productive cows’ reproductive status

The work was carried out in two stages on 146 cows (26 first heifers and 120 animals of the 2nd and subsequent lactations). At the first stage, the frequency of occurrence of ovulatory follicles of different diameters 24 hours before artificial insemination was determined using ultrasound. It was found that the minimum and maximum diameter of the follicle in cows of the 1st lactation was 13 and 22 mm, in the 2nd and subsequent lactations – 12 and 30 mm, respectively. In animals of the 1st lactation, ovulatory follicles of 18 and ≥ 20 mm were more common, in cows of subsequent lactations – 15, 19 and ≥ 20 mm. At the second stage, the average diameter of the ovulatory follicle (with exogenous administration of GnRH) was determined in first-calf heifers and older cows 24 hours before artificial insemination, with further confirmation of the reproductive status of the animal after 35 days. Fruitful insemination was recorded in cows of the 1st lactation with an average diameter of the ovulatory follicle of 19,0±0,8 mm, in animals of the 2nd and subsequent lactations – 18,0±1,6 mm. The absence of pregnancy after artificial insemination was detected in cows of the 1st lactation with a follicle size of 17,1±1,2 mm, in the 2nd and subsequent lactations – 20,0±1,2 mm. Key words: ovulatory follicle size, high-productive cows, estrous cycle synchronization, reproductive status.


35 Solodova E.V., Lebedeva  L.F. Effect of D-cloprostenol on mares up to 5 days after ovulation

We studied various regimens of using D-cloprostenol (an analogue of prostaglandin F2a) in mares (up to 5 days after ovulation) on the formation of the corpus luteum, interruption of diestrus and uterine clearance in single, foaled and coated mares. The research results showed the high ability of the corpus luteum to partially or completely recover when using 1 – 3 injections of D-cloprostenol before the 5th day of the cycle. A single administration of the drug 30±6 hours after ovulation is safe for indoor mares. Daily 4-5 injections of the drug after ovulation can be used to quickly involute the uterus after early postpartum ovulation and shorten the diestral period. Key words: estrus cycle, estrus, corpus luteum, cloprostenol.



42 Selimov R.N., Goncharova E.N., Komarov A.A., Engasheva E.S., Engashev S.V. Pharmacokinetics and dynamics of eliminating amoxicilline residues after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in sheep

Amoxicillin was administered to 6 sheep by single intramuscular injection and, after wash-out period, by single subcutaneous injection at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg bodyweight to study its pharmacokinetics. After intramuscular injection, amoxicillin was adsorbed with Tmax about 2,3 h, and after subcutaneous administration – about 3,8 h. Maximum plasma concentration was 2,1 µg/ml after intramuscular administration and 1,6 µg/ml after subcutaneous administration. Amoxicillin was administered twice with 48 h interval at the same dose rate to 16 sheep by intramuscular injection and to 16 sheep by subcutaneous injection to study its tissue depletion. After 28 days following both subcutaneous and intramuscular administrations no residues were detected in any tissue. Key words: amoxicilline, pharmacokinetics, residual, sheep, HPLC-MS/MS.


46 Tarasova E.Yu. Assessment of biochemical indicators of rabbit with combined mycotoxicosis with the use of the feed additive Galluasorb

The results showed that eating food contaminated simultaneously with three mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1) in high doses by rabbits leads to a significant change in individual parameters of the biochemical profile with a significant decrease in the level of total protein, albumins, albumin-globulin ratio, glucose and increased urea, creatinine and total bilirubin. The addition of the multicomponent feed additive Galluasorb decreased the toxic effects of mycotoxins and restored the content of urea, creatinine, glucose and total bilirubin almost to background values. The decrease in total protein and albumin was less pronounced, if compared to the toxic control group. A statistically significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde in rabbits with a toxic diet was shown by 41,67  % (p <0,01); in the prevented group, the increase was not so significant and amounted to 13,89  %, which also confirms the effectiveness and promise of further comprehensive studies of the developed feed additive as a means of preventing combined mycotoxicosis. Key words: mycotoxins, molds, mycotoxicosis, rabbits, biochemistry, prevention.


51 Bogdanova S.S., Nikitkina E.V., Plemyashov K.V. Anesthetic female reindeer during surgery on the uterus

The article presents literature data on anesthesiological support for ungulates and deer in particular. Practical experience is described in the use of drugs available on the veterinary market for anesthesia of a female reindeer during surgery on the uterus. Intraoperative graphs of fluctuations in vital signs are presented. The data obtained will help in anesthesia and monitoring of reindeer, as a separate, poorly studied species. Key words: reindeer, anesthesia of ungulates, assisted reproductive technologies, pulse in deer, blood pressure in reindeer.


54 Solodcova K.V., Shantyz A.H., Kashkovskaya L.M., Safarova M.I. Assessment of embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of drug Mastigard

An assessment of the parameters of the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of the drug Mastigard is presented. The drug was administered intragastrically using an atraumatic probe to female rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy in therapeutic (0.11 ml/100 g body weight) and double therapeutic doses (0.22 ml/100 g body weight). It has been established that the use of the Mastigard during pregnancy in female rats does not have an embryotoxic or fetotoxic effect on the offspring of rats. Based on the results of testing on rat pups, the absence of influence of the drug when administered to pregnant females on the physical and sensory-motor development of the offspring was confirmed. The study of embryos using the Wilson and Dawson method confirmed the absence of a teratogenic effect on the offspring of rats. Key words: mastitis, levofloxacin, nosiheptide, prednisolone, embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, pregnancy, offspring, rats.











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CONTENTS №5-2024