6 Smirnov D.D., Laishevtcev A.I., Kapustin A.V., Yakimova E.A., A.S. Belyaeva A.S. Ulcerative Enteritis in Poultry
This work presents a review of the literature data on a bacterial infection that tends to spread in the poultry industry on the territory of the Russian Federation called ulcerative enteritis in poultry which is caused by Clostridium colinum. The disease generally manifests itself in the gastrointestinal form, accompanied by a high mortality rate among poultry. The work presents the description of the pathogen biological properties, factors predisposing to the infection and pathogenetic aspects of the development of the disease. The most typical clinical and morphological symptoms, principles of treatment and prevention of ulcerative enteritis are described. Key words: Clostridium colinum, ulcerative enteritis, etiology, diagnosis, clinical signs, pathologianatomic changes, prevention and treatment.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
8 Khishov A.S., Soltynskaya I.V., Krylova E.V., Yatsentyuk S.P., Gergel M.A. Bovine kobuvirus
The identification of bovine kobuvirus in livestock farm in the United States has again prompted discussion of this virus, its structural features, distribution, species specificity and pathogenicity. Information on the spread of the virus and its possible diagnostic by methods of molecular biology is given in combination with the known clinical signs of an infectious disease potentially caused by a kobuvirus and its localization in the cattle population. Key words: kobuvirus, Aichivirus, PCR, cattle, sequencing, diarrhea, young calves.
11 Tyurin V.G., Biryukov K.N., Mysova G.A., Potemkina N.N., Kochish O.I., Semenov V.G. Sanitary and bacteriological state of vermicompost based on organic animal waste
The assessment of the sanitary and bacteriological state of vermicompost based on the bedding manure of cattle is given. It is established that when processing manure with the use of earthworms, its disinfection does not occur and this process should be used only in farms that are safe for infectious diseases. Key words: manure, biohumus, disinfection, vermicompost, sanitary and bacteriological condition, organic fertilizer.
15 Budulov N.R., Aliev A.Yu. Distribution and control measures with cattle leukemia in Dagestan Republic
The article presents an analysis of the epizootic situation on cattle leukemia and the results of diagnostic studies in Dagestan Republic for five-year period (2015 – 2019). Key words: leukemia, BLV infection, diagnostic studies, monitoring, immunodiffusion reaction, infected object.
20 Pivova E.Yu., Vlasov M.Е., Zhivoderov S.P. The susceptibility of rabbits to the virus lumpy skin disease of cattle in experimental infection
In the article we can see results of the study of rabbits as an experimental laboratory model for infection when infected with a virus of lumpy skin disease (LSD of cattle). After infection with a virus in rabbits noticed the formation of knots on the skin. The virus from the affected areas on the skin was isolated on a sheep kidney cells culture; fragments of the LSD virus genome were detected by real-time PCR. Key words: Lumpy skin disease (LSD of cattle), rabbits, PCR-RT.
25 Engashev S.V., Gusev A.A., Babak V.A. The influence of maternal immunity and priming on the formation of humoral immunity in chickens
In the research presents the results of studying the effect of maternal antibodies and priming on the formation of active humoral immunity in chickens immunized with live and inactivated vaccines (NB, IBC, IBB). It was found that the presence of maternal antibodies and priming of chickens prevents the creation of active humoral immunity in response to immunization with live and inactivated emulsion vaccines with emulsions of the water-oil and water-oil-water types. The immune system of chickens from the first days of life is fully formed and actively reacts to vaccination with inactivated vaccines by forming a tense immunity, if they do not have maternal antibodies. The vaccine emulsion type water-oil-water contributes to a more intense immunity in chickens than the vaccine type emulsion water-oil. Key words: infectious diseases, poultry farming, vaccination, chicken priming, transovarial antibodies, humoral immunity.
30 Yatsentyuk S.P., Krasnikova M.S., Bryusova M.B. Comparative study of PCR kits for the detection of the influenza virus A RNA
The article presents the results of a comparison of diagnostic kits for RNA of influenza A virus detection in terms of specificity, sensitivity, stability. The differences in the analytical characteristics of the kits are shown, the need for control and periodic updating of the sequences of primers and probes used for amplification and detection of influenza A virus is discussed. Key words: test system, PCR, influenza A virus, sensitivity, specificity, stability.
34 Kinareikina A.G., Silivanova E.A. Mechanisms of esterase-mediated insecticide resistance in insects: A brief review
The protection of animals from ectoparasitic insects is one of the most actual issues of veterinary parasitology and sanitation. The overuse of insecticides for insect control around the world makes arising insecticide resistance another global problem. The article discusses the contribution of esterase enzymes to an insecticide metabolism and the development of insecticide resistance to common and widely used organophоsphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids. The molecular genetic mechanisms underlying carboxyl- and acetylcholinesterase-mediated insecticide resistance are described briefly. It is highlighted the importance of the further study of the regulatory aspects of the insecticide resistance development. Key words: nonspecific esterases, carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase, xenobiotic metabolism, insecticidal resistance.
39 Akbaev R.M., Soloveva V.V., Generalov A.A. Efficiency of powder insectoacaricidal medicine based on microstructured amorphous silica carrier hematopinosis in cattle
The article presents the results of research work aimed at studying the effectiveness of dust therapy in cattle with hematopinosis using a powder insectoacaricidal agent from the group of synthetic pyrethroids based on a microstructured amorphous silica carrier. The insectoacaricidal agent was sprayed over the body of cattle in a uniform thin layer using a DINAMICA knapsack rechargeable duster twice, with an interval of 10 days. As a result of the studies carried out, it was found that the test agent has a pronounced insecticidal effect against animal lice. No live parasites were found in the abrasions from the skin and hair of the animals after two treatments. The powder, consisting of microstructured amorphous silica and synthetic pyrethroids, enveloping the body of insects, prevents the flow of oxygen through the spiracles and damages the wax layer of their cuticles, draws out moisture, and the synthetic pyrethroids included in the composition of the agent, acting on the nervous system of lice, cause paralysis and death of insects at all stages development. This insecticidal acaricidal agent can be used at any time of the year, and also serve as an alternative replacement for traditional liquid insecticides. Key words: Haematopinus eurysternus, hematopinosis, lice, dust therapy, powder insectoacaricide, duster, efficacy, synthetic pyrethroids, microstructured amorphous silica.
44 Grechko V.V., Ovchinnikov D.K. Treatment of a cat with perineal urethrostoma
The article describes a case of treatment of perineal urethrostoma failure in a cat, namely narrowing and elimination of urethral obstruction in its distal part. Laboratory diagnostic methods were performed, the technique of the operation and the postoperative period with a decrease in pain sensitivity (analgesia) were described. Key words: urethrostoma, idiopathiccystitis, urethralobstruction, diagnosis.
47 Mineev A.K. Pathologies of red blood cell nuclei in commercial fish species of the Saratov reservoir
The parameters of the occurrence of red blood cells with nuclear pathologies in six mass fish species of the Saratov reservoir, including two commercial fish: bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) and pike (Ezox lucius Linnaeus, 1758), are presented. Nine types of karyopathologies were found, some of which are characterized by an excess of the norms of the content of such red blood cells in the bloodstream in certain fish species, which is one of the signs of their populations problems in the ecological conditions of the reservoir. Despite the fact that among all species, the number of individuals with red blood cell karyopathologies did not reach high or critical values, the occurrence of certain types of pathologies exceeded the value of their spontaneous formation (1%). Only for two types of pathologies – pyknosis and bifurcation of the nucleus, this norm was not exceeded. The variety of detected karyopathologies of red blood cells and the regular nature of these disorders in fish is a possible consequence of the impact of anthropogenic factors. Key words: Saratov reservoir, commercial fish species, pathologies of red blood cell nuclei.
51 Lashin A.P., Simonova N.V. Influence of succinate containing drugs on blood parameters in newborn calves
The effect of succinic acid and succinate containing drug Reamberin on some blood parameters in newborn calves was studied. Newborn calves were divided into 3 groups (control and two experimental), 15 heads each. The animals of the first experimental group were daily orally administered succinic acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 10 days; the calves of the second experimental group were injected daily intravenously with Reamberin 60 ml of a 1,5 % solution for infusion for 10 days. The introduction of succinic acid to calves increases the content of erythrocytes by 14 %, hemoglobin by 17 %, and total protein by 26 % against the background of a significant decrease in the number of leukocytes by 19 %. The introduction of succinate containing drug Reamberin to calves increases the content of erythrocytes by 16 %, hemoglobin by 17%, and total protein by 36 % against the background of a significant decrease in the number of leukocytes by 21 %. Intravenous administration of Reamberin to animals prevents changes in the clinical and physiological status and increases the safety of newborn calves, which surpasses the similar effect in succinic acid. Key words: succinic acid, Reamberin, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leukocytes, total protein, clinical and physiological status, morbidity, safety, calves.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
55 Gaponov N.V., Panchenko A.V., Panchenko A.V., Chuguev Yu.P. Bioavailability of chlorella nutrients and its effect on the hematological parameters of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
Chlorella is a green, unicellular microalga that has become widespread due to its suitability as a model organism for laboratory research and production. Chlorella has a wide spectrum of biological activity, in particular, it exhibits pronounced antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antiviral properties. Research into the inclusion of chlorella in the diet is promising. The data obtained indicate that the inclusion of chlorella in the diet, both in dry form and in the form of a cell suspension, promotes better absorption of nutrients. Thus, in the group receiving chlorella suspension, the digestibility of crude protein increased by 4,18 % (p<0,05), crude fat by 4,70 % (p<0,01), crude fiber by 4,14 % (p<0,05) and crude ash by 12,32 % (p<0,001). In the group of soup with dry chlorella, the digestibility of crude protein increased by 6,83 % (p<0,001), crude fiber by 4,78 % (p<0,05), and crude ash by 18,93 % (p<0,001). The results of hematological studies indicate that there are no side effects from long-term use of chlorella in primates. The introduction of dry chlorella into the diet increased the blood glucose level to the upper limit of the control values, while the chlorella suspension did not have such an effect. Key words: chlorella, digestibility, blood, biochemistry, suspension, primates.
61 Novikova S.V., Zhelobitskaya E.A. Diastatin feed additive for normalization of digestion in calves and piglets
The feed additive Diastatin, when used in colostrum and lactating calves, as well as in suckling piglets, helps to increase their productivity and normalize digestion in case of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Key words: feed additive Diastatin, calves, piglets, functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, water-electrolyte balance, organic acids, enterosorbent, tannin.