CONTENTS №6-2023

3 Sudorgina T.E., Glotova T.I.,  Koteneva S.V., Nefedchenko A.V.,  Velker D.A., Glotov A.G. Clostridium infections in cattle: characteristics of the main etiological agents, prevention and control measures (review, part 2)

A review of the literature data on the problem of cattle clostridiosis is presented, including the modern classification of bacteria of the genus Clostridium and their role in the pathology of this animal species. The description of main pathogens of clostridiosis and factors of their toxigenicity is given. The second part presents and discusses current information about the clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control measures for this pathology in cattle. Key words: cattle, clostridiosis, clinical signs, diagnostics, prevention and control measures.



10 Batrakov A.Ya., Plemyashov K.V., Serdyuk G.N. The current state of dairy farming in the Russian Federation and the ways of its efficiency improving           

The organization of breeding work in dairy farming should be changed with taking to the account not only its efficiency improving but as well as reproductive capacity, animal resistance to diseases and productive longevity. Ensuring balanced feeding of cows in accordance with their milk production and creating conditions that meet physiological needs will largely reduce the occurrence of mass noncontagious diseases, increase reproductive functions and productive longevity of cows. Key words: breeding work, milk the cows, metabolism, body resistance, non-communicable diseases, holsteinization, balanced diet, productive longevity.



16 Gordienko L.N., Novikov A.N., Kulikova E.V. The dynamics of development the epizootic process in the new brucellosis focus, which was emerged against the background longtime welfare

In this article we presented data on the features of the manifestation brucellosis epizootic process as a returning infection. It is noted that an incorrect assessment of the results of diagnostic researches was generated a danger of the creation a new locus of the brucellosis and the incident of epizootic. It was found that brucellosis, as a returning infection, was described by the proactive development of the epizootic process and the widespread disease over a short period with the participation of up to half (43,1%) of the receptive livestock population on the farm. Key words: animals, infection, brucellosis, focus, epizootic process.


19 Stafford V.V. The use of fish method in the diagnosis of CSF

The article presents data on the use of in-situ hybridization as a diagnostic method in experimental pathological material (the experiment CSF infection is described in the previous article [8]) from 10 infected piglets (as a positive control) and 10 piglets as a negative control. The method was developed on cryotomic histological sections from parenchymal organs of experimental animals. The thickness of the histological slices was 10 microns. Nest PCR was used to develop a hybridization probe. A hybridization oligonucleotide DNA probe labeled with fluorescein was used for hybridization with the virus genome. As a result of the work performed, we obtained negative results in histological sections of the brain and spinal cord, liver and kidneys of infected piglets, as well as in all organs from piglets from the negative control group. We observed a positive result of in-situ hybridization in sections from the tonsil, spleen and mesenteric lymph node of piglets from the positive control group. This reaction was characterized by the appearance of an emerald-green glow in the sections of these organs. The nature of the location of the positive signal indicated that the virus genetic material is localized in the cytoplasm of lymphoid cells. In areas of extensive parenchymal necrosis in the organs, separate, small areas of fluorescein glow were observed, which indicated the destruction of the cytoplasm of cells in the necrosis zone. In addition, we have also identified dense, massive signals in the cytoplasm of cells, as a result of the phagocytozis of cells particles by macrophages. The method developed by us allows postmortem diagnosis of CSF both with the clinical signs of the disease and with asymptomatic viral transmission. Key words: FISH, hybridization probe, histology, classical swine fever, virus.


23 Sibgatulova A.K., Shaidullin R.R., Padilo L.P., Agoltsov V.A., Mingaleev D.N. Features of aleutian disease of minks

Aleutian mink disease is a biological factor causing significant losses in mink breeding. This disease causes enormous economic damage to fur farms and is a serious problem for all mink breeders in all countries. The virus that causes this disease in minks is also able to infect wild populations, which in turn are asymptomatic carriers. The article presents general information about the etiology of the disease, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations of the disease, pathomorphological changes and macropicture of organs and tissues in minks, laboratory diagnostics, prevention and control measures. Key words: Aleutian mink disease, clinical signs, laboratory diagnostics, macropicture, minks, pathomorphological changes, prevention and control measures.



32 Vasilevich F.I., Davydova O.Е., Esaulova N.V. Distribution of dermatitis of parasitic origin in dogs and cats in the Moscow region

The article provides information about the features of the distribution of dermatitis of parasitic origin in dogs and cats in Moscow and the Moscow region. It was found that dermatopathology of parasitic etiology in a metropolis is much more common in cats (42 – 45 % in the total structure of nosologies) than in dogs (12 %). At the same time, aphanipterosis is recorded with the highest frequency in urban conditions – in 46 – 62 %. The second place in distribution is occupied by otodectosis of cats (34 – 38 %) and demodicosis of dogs (39 %). The share of parasitic etiology in clinical cases registered by veterinary clinics of the Moscow region in the overall structure of dermatological pathologies is 70 – 73 % for cats and 30 – 34 % for dogs. With the predominance of afanipterosis, an increase in cases of otodectosis of cats up to 58 – 63 % is recorded. Key words: dermatitis of parasitic origin, otodectosis, afanipterosis, demodicosis, notoedrosis, dogs, cats.


37 Postevoy A.N., Andreyanov O.N. Biological features of the pathogen of Fasciola hepatica trematodosis in laboratory rabbits

The work studied the features of the pathogen of fasciolesis F. hepatica in laboratory rabbits. 11 animals weighing from 1,6 to 2,2 kg were studied. The invasive material was obtained from Limnaea truncatula of the laboratory population. The dose of infection of the definition hosts was 20 adolescariae per head. Control of trematode contamination was performed by coproovoscopic method of animal faeces examination (sequential washing method). A sectional study of infected animals was performed 3, 12 and 24 months after infection. Incubation of helminth eggs was carried out under thermostat conditions at a temperature of 24 0C for 14 days. Seromonitoring of experimental fasciolesis in rabbits was performed by an agar gel immuno-diffusion reaction. Antigen from F. hepatica was prepared from sexually mature trematodes. There were no clinical signs of invasion in animals. 3 months after infection of rabbits, the shape of fasciola eggs was typically oval. After 1 – 2 years, abnormal forms of eggs appear. The color of the eggs becomes black or transparent over time. Fibrosis and, in part, necrosis of the biliary passages of the liver at the site of the parasite localization were noted on sectional concealment in animals. Helminth engraftment rate for one year is 35 – 40 %. After 2 years, engraftment decreases by 4 times. The number of trematode eggs after 3 months of parasitization is 41,000. After one year, the number of parasite eggs increases 2 times. From 14 to 21 days and then after infection of animals, specific antibodies against the somatic antigen F. hepatica appear. Key words: helminth, infection, rabbit, miracidium, eggs, Fasciola hepatica.



41 Malakhova L.S., Omarov A.A., Surov A.I., Griga O.E., Karpova E.D. Effectiveness of frontal artificial insemination of tashli sheep with synchronized sexual cycle

Synchronization of the sexual cycle is one of the modern and increasingly widely used biotechnological methods in breeding to increase the efficiency of reproduction of animals. This article presents the results on the effectiveness of frontal artificial insemination of Tashli sheep with synchronized sexual cycle. The indicators of fertilization and fecundity of ewes with a double administration of the prostaglandin drug with the commercial name Magestrofan® produced by Mosagrogen JSC in a total dose of 250 mcg (according to the active substance cloprostenol) with an interval of 9 days were 80,0 % and 141,7 %, respectively, with a double administration of Magestrofan® with an interval of 11 days, 81,7 % and 142,9 %. Key words: sheep, sexual cycle, synchronization, Magestrofan®, frontal artificial insemination, fertilization, fertility.



45 Korochkina E.A., Plemyashov K.V., Nikitin V.V. Morphologic and functional state of endocrine organs in the transition Holstein Black-and-White cows

Numerous studies have established that the main changes in the hormonal regulation of metabolic function in highly productive cows occur during the transit period. At the same time, the function of regulating metabolic processes is performed by such organs as the thyroid and pancreas, adrenal glands and ovaries. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphofunctional state of the endocrine organs of Holsteinized Black-and-White cows during the transition period, taking into account their histological assessment and monitoring of hormones in the blood. The studies were carried out in one of the farms of the Leningrad region on Holsteinized Black-and-White breed cows with milk productivity for 305 days of lactation 5625 10000 kg of milk per animal. The hormone levels were monitored during the transition period: 21 and 10 days before calving and on the 2nd and 14th days after calving. Post-mortem examination and histological examination of tissues of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland and ovaries were also performed. The concentration of free thyroxine in the blood of Holsteinized Black-and-White breed cows in the first half of the transition period averaged 14,82±1,99 and 16,20±8,01 pmol/l, in the second half of the transition period: 11,21±1,02 and 9,76±1,19 pmol/l; cortisol concentration: 40,38±36,3 and 36,9±5,82 nmol/l in the first half and 43,1±7,2 and 44,4±12,40 nmol/l in the second half. When assessing the hormone-poietic function of the ovaries, it was noted that in animals from the 21st to the 10th day before calving, the level of progesterone in the blood decreased from 23,1±4,7 to 18,1±7,8 nmol/l; in the second half of the transition period, the level progesterone was 2,1±2,1 and 2,5±4,1 nmol/l (on the 2nd and 14th days after calving, respectively). A decrease in the content of estradiol was recorded on the 2nd and 14th days after delivery from 252,9±196,2 pmol/l to 149,1±101,3 pmol/l. Pathological changes in the tissues of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland and ovaries in 8090 % of the studied cows of the Holsteinized Black-and-White breed were not registered during the transition period. The data obtained correspond to the physiology of the transition period of cows. Key words: cows, histological studies, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, ovaries, hormones, transit period.


50 Mineev A.K. Histopathology of the gill apparatus in two commercial fish species of the Kuibyshev reservoir

The results of the study of the histological state of the gill apparatus in two mass fish species of the Kuibyshev reservoir: roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758) and bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) are presented. Using standard histological techniques, ten types of detected histopathologies of gills were studied. The excess of normal fish occurrence rates for the majority of detected gill disorders in populations was recorded, which is one of the signs of their distress in the ecological conditions of the reservoir. The proportion of individuals with histopathologies of gill structures reached high values, and the occurrence of detected types of pathologies exceeded the value of their spontaneous formation (1%). The revealed pathologies had different degrees of severity for fish. Injuries of an irreversible nature and life-threatening to fish prevailed: infiltration and dysplasia of lamellae. The variety of detected histopathologies of gills and the regular nature of the manifestation of these disorders in a significant part of the populations. Key words: Kuibyshev reservoir, mass species of fish, histopathology of the gill.



56 Zhedulov A.E., Batov I.V., Nekrasov D.Yu., Sorokin A.V. Method for quantitative determination of clavulanic acid in livestock products using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

A method of quantitative determination of the residual content of clavulanic acid in animal products has been developed. The stage of sample preparation includes purification by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a sorbent with weak anion exchange properties. Chromatographic separation is carried out on a column with a normal phase. The determination is carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in negative ionization mode, with registration of fragment ions. The limit of quantitative determination (LOQ) is 50 mkg/kg. The method has passed metrological certification for five types of livestock products – muscle tissue, adipose tissue, offal, eggs and milk. The expanded uncertainty of the measurement results is in the range of 19 – 29 % at a coverage factor of k=2. The technique is specific and can be used as an arbitration method for the determination of clavulanic acid in the range from 50 to 1000 mkg/kg. Key words: clavulanic acid, mass spectrometry, HPLC-MS/MS, livestock products, quantitative analysis, solid phase extraction.


61 Satyukova L.P., Polyakova D.S., Grudev A.I., Shubina E.G., Popova I.I.  Improved high-performance liquid chromatography method with mass-spectrometric detector for detection of anthelmintics in frozen fish

The article describes an improved method for determining anthelmintics in frozen fish. The advantages of this technique in comparison with the existing methodology, as well as the results of its testing are shown. Key words: anthelmintics, fish, MI A-1/044, high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry.


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CONTENTS №6-2023