CONTENTS №6-2024

3 Glotov A.G., Glotova T.I. Immune evasion mechanisms of pestiviruses from the host immune system (review)

The review provides a brief summary of the literature data on the main mechanisms by which pestiviruses evade the immune system using the example of BVDV. During the coevolutionary process between pestiviruses and their hosts, agents have developed a variety of tactics to evade host immune defenses which has a negative impact on control programs, diagnostic efficiency and vaccination. Penetration into the fetus at an early stage of its development may be one of the reasons for the success of these agents, which is associated with the suppression of the production of interferon and some other factors of non-specific immunity. The presence of this form of infection is of great practical importance, as it significantly complicates the implementation of diagnostic measures, reduces the effectiveness of control measures and does not always give a true idea of the spread of the disease and the role of the pathogen in a particular animal pathology. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to developing effective control measures for the infections caused by them. Further research is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression and persistence caused by pestiviruses and to discover new targets for antiviral intervention. It is critical to develop modern vaccines provides comprehensive protection against different strains of viruses to minimize the impact of this pathogen on livestock production. Key words: pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea viruses, coevolution, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, interferon.



10 Shemelkov E.V., Shemelkova G.O., Ivanov E.V., Verkhovsky O.A., Bulgakov A.D., Baranova Yu.A., Aliper T.I. The effectiveness of different schemes for using the KOMBOVAC-A vaccine in conditions of a farm unfavorable for respiratory and intestinal diseases of calves

In the livestock complex, specific antibodies to six bovine viruses that cause respiratory and intestinal infections in calves were identified. Three of them had not previously been subject to specific prophylaxis and antibodies could not be produced post-vaccination. The inactivated seven-component vaccine KOMBOVAK-A, which was used to immunize cows and their offspring, significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of young animals – 1,3 – 2,0 times compared to the period when immunobiological preparations with a smaller spectrum of antigens were used. It was found that simultaneous immunization of the entire adult livestock with a frequency of 6 months is not inferior in its effectiveness to individual vaccination of animals, depending on their physiological status (insemination, calving). Early first immunization of calves (at the age of 7– 10 days) turned out to be more effective than at 30 – 35 days of age, despite the fairly high level of colostral antibodies. Key words: adjuvants, vaccine, bovine viruses, colostral immunity, vaccination effectiveness.



17 Novikova N.N., Vlasenko V.S., Vishnevsky E.A. Direct immunofluorescence reaction for the diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus

The article discusses options for using a direct immunofluorescence reaction using a prototype of “Diagnostic fluorescent immunoglobulins against bovine leukemia virus” in diagnostic titers of 1:640 – 1:1280 to detect the virus antigen in blood smears and a cell suspension of lymphocytes isolated on a density gradient of radiopaque substances, compared to the indirect method. The studies were conducted on material obtained from farms in the Omsk region (up to 80 % of infected animals were unaffected and control animals were free of this disease). As a result of the studies, it was established that the direct method in combination with the technique of isolating a cell suspension of lymphocytes can reduce the cost of diagnosing bovine leukemia. This is achieved by minimizing the labor costs of a specialist, reducing the reaction time by 2,5 times, and identifying the virus in the early stages of disease development due to the high specificity and activity of fluorescent immunoglobulins. Key words: cattle, leukemia, diagnostics, immunofluorescence, PCR.


23 Isaev Yu.G., Sotnikov A.N., Gulyukin M.I., Loschinin M.N., Yakimova E.A. Вacterial microbiota of the surface of living honey bees

The article considers the issues of studying the bacterial microbiota of the surface of living honey bees. Data on bacterial contamination of the body surface of queens and worker bees are presented. The spectrum of microorganisms in the microbiota of the body surface of honey bees from group 2 (worker bees and drones) turned out to be more diverse and included 20 species, representatives of 12 genera from 7 families. At the same time, in group 1 (uterus), the composition of the microbiota was more meager and included only 13 species, representatives of 6 genera from 4 families. Key words: honeybee, microbiota of the body surface, pathogens of honeybees, zooanthroponoses.


28 Shishkova N.A., Goncharova Yu.O., Marinin L.I., Tyurin E.A., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A.  Differentiation of strains of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus during isolation of anthrax cattle burial ground from the soil

The paper presents the results of work for differentiation of strains of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus during the isolation of anthrax cattle burial grounds from the soil. From the soil of the old cattle burial ground, we have identified three types of microbial cultures. Some of them had properties typical of B. anthracis, others differed in a number of characteristics. The fundamental possibility of using a complex technique for differentiating anthrax cultures from closely related microorganisms, including the assessment of the biological and molecular genetic properties of the isolated cultures, was shown. Key words: anthrax, Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), soil, spore, cattle burial ground, differentiation, genotyping.



36 Solodcova K.V., Kashkovskaya L.M. A correct means of combating bi-winged insects in young cattle

Diptera insects are widespread both on pastures in the spring-summer period and on livestock farms, being carriers of many infections. To combat dipteran insects, animals are traditionally regularly treated with insecticides. The drug Cyflunit based on cyfluthrin showed its high therapeutic efficacy in a study of insecticidal action on calves. The coefficient of protective action from the 2nd to the 7th day of the experiment was 100 % and remained up to 29 days at a level of at least 83%. Key words: cyfluthrin, Ciflunit, flies, two-winged insects, calves, therapeutic efficacy, insecticidal action.


40 Mineeva O.V. Ruff of the Saratov reservoir as a sourse of helmintoses dangerous to human

We studied the infestation of the common ruffe of the Saratov reservoir (Lower Volga) with sanitary-important parasites. Helminths dangerous to human health are represented by four species of trematodes at the larval stage, the most identified being Apophallus muehlingi. causative agent of apophallosis. We believe that the common ruffe is an important participant in the life cycle of this fluke species. Key  words: ruff, helminthiasis, Saratov reservoir.



46 Malakhova L.S., Omarov A.A., Surov A.I., Karpova E.D. The results of artificial insemination of sheep of the north caucasian breed with transported sperm of rams of different genotypes

Reproduction of sheep, regardless of the form of ownership, should be based on the organization and conduct of artificial insemination. The choice of a particular method of insemination in sheep farming should be approached taking into account the specific conditions of management. For a number of reasons, not all farms and private farms can afford to purchase expensive high-value producers, ensure their appropriate maintenance, feeding and care throughout the year. The aim of the work is to determine the effectiveness of frontal artificial insemination of North Caucasian sheep with a synchronized sexual cycle by transported sperm from Ile-de-France, Charolais, Merinoland, and North Caucasian sheep producers. The results of the conducted studies have shown a relatively high fertilizing ability of the transported sperm of sheep producers of different genotypes. The fertilization rate of ewes inseminated with transported sperm of the IDF sheep was 70,0 %, which is 6,7 and 3,3 % more than in ewes inseminated with sperm from rams W and ML. The fertilization rate of ewes inseminated with transported sheep sperm was 60%. The highest fertility was characterized by ewes inseminated with transported sperm of sheep Sh – 147,4 %, which is 8,5; 4,5 and 2,4 % more than ewes inseminated with transported sperm of sheep SK, IDF and ML. Key words: ewes, rams, sperm, fertility, insemination, breed.



51 Mineev A.K. Histopathology of the gill in the goby-round (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas, 1814) and the roundhead goby (Neogobius iljini Vasiljeva, Vasiljev, 1996) of the Kuibyshev reservoir

The results of a study (2005 – 2013) of the histological state of the gill apparatus in 122 individuals of two massive species of goby fish of the Kuibyshev reservoir are presented: the goby-round (Neogobius melanostomus, Pallas, 1814) and the roundhead goby (Neogobius iljini Vasiljeva,  Vasiljev, 1996) are presented. Using standard histological techniques, eight types of detected histopathologies of gills were studied. An excess of normal fish occurrence rates was recorded for most of the detected gill disorders in populations, which is one of the signs of their disadvantage in the environmental conditions of the reservoir. The proportion of individuals with histopathologies of the gill structures reached high values. The revealed pathologies had different degrees of severity for fish. Irreversible and life-threatening injuries of fish prevailed: dysplasia and curvature of lamellae, infiltration of blood cells. The variety of detected histopathologies of gills and the regular nature of the manifestation of these disorders in a significant part of the populations of gobies is a possible consequence of the impact of anthropogenic factors. Key words: Kuibyshev reservoir, goby-round, roundhead goby, histopathology of the gill.


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CONTENTS №6-2024