3 Yurov K.P., Georgiou Ch., Alexeyenkova S.V. Etiology of infectious abortions in horses
A review of literary sources and the results of own research on the very urgent problem for horse breeding — the etiological structure of infectious diseases of the reproductive organs of horses is presented. Moreover, in the case of mass abortions, early embryonic mortality, the birth of weak, non-viable foals, and abortions of aborted mares, these diseases cause large, and in some cases catastrophic losses for large horse farms and individual horse owners. The etiology of these diseases is quite diverse. In this case, specific diseases remain the most significant: equine herpes viral infection, equine viral arteritis, salmonella abortion equi. It should be noted that the problem of embryonic mortality has recently attracted attention also in connection with the expansion of the range of carriers of blood-parasitic diseases — ticks. Key words: equine viral arteritis, rhinopneumonitis, herpesvirus, high virulent strains, arteriovirus, vasculitis, abortion, horses, stallion-carrier, Salmonella abortus equi, placentitis, piroplazmidoses.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
10 Ivanovsky A.A., Latushkina N.A. Use of phytoadaptogen in the diet of pregnant pigs
Correction of violations of the homeostasis of the animal organism is one of the urgent tasks of modern veterinary science and practice. One such remedy includes phytoecdysteroids and bioflavonoids. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to study the effect of a plant-based feed supplement containing extracts of grasses of leuzea carthamoides, Serratula coronata, Filipendula ulmaria, on the blood condition of pregnant sows, the clinical status and safety of piglets obtained from them. Herbal supplement was obtained in the laboratory of veterinary biotechnology FBGNU FANС North-East. Markers of the active principle of the additive identified ecdysteroids and flavonoid rutin (total concentration 37200 mg/kg) as the most biologically active substances of the target plants. In the experiment, pregnant large white pigs were selected at the age of 2 – 2,5 years, distributed into 4 groups (3 experimental and control) 10 animals each. Herbal supplement was introduced into the diet of pigs 30 days before the expected farrowing individually, daily, once in doses: 1 group – 3 grams, 2 group – 5 grams, 3 group – 10 grams. The pig diet of the control group included only compound feed SPK-2. By the end of the experiment, pig blood counts were normal in all groups. The number of newborns in the experimental groups was 135 ±1, 8 of them live – 125 ± 3,1, which was 6,2 % and 10,6 %, respectively, higher than the control result (P<0,05). The number of stillborn piglets in the experimental groups was less than in the control by 26 % (P<0,05), and the number transferred to weaning was 11,2 % more (P<0,05). The gross increase (M±m) in the experimental groups was 974±2,3 kg, which is 9,8 % more than the control (P<0,05). Other indicators of piglets (average weight of the pig during transmission, average daily gain, live weight of the pig at birth) did not differ significantly from the control (P>0,05). The safety of piglets by the end of the experiment in the experimental groups was 95,4 %, in the control 94,6 %. Key words: plants, ecdysteroids, rutin, feed supplement, blood, pigs.
15 Polyakov I.D., Ivanova L.G., Butyrina M.O., Polyakov I.I., Rogov V.A. The safety for target animals of new immunobiological medical product BANOVAC® IDD for treating and preventing the digital, interdigital dermatitis and interdigital phlegmon
The object of the present publication is the safety results of the new immunobiological medicines BINOVAC® IDD for use in a method of treating digital (DD), interdigital dermatitis (ID) and interdigital phlegmon (IP) in cattle. The medical product has a pronounced effect on the immune system of animals and is save to mice with subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration . The presented studies showed that BINOVAK® IDD containing a colloidal polysaccharide (an analogue of the cell wall of fungi) is save to cows with a single, double and triple intramuscular injections in a dose of 5.0 ml (therapeutic dose). A double therapeutic dose (10 ml) when administered three times intramuscularly was also harmless to cows. Local and general reactions were not detected in all animals. Key words: colloidal polysaccharide, safety, multiply administration, BINOVAC® IDD for treating digital, interdigital dermatitis and interdigital phlegmon in cattle.
19 Mukovnin A.A., Naimanov A.H., Gulukin A.M. Bovine tuberculosis in the russian federation
The analysis provides the epizootic situation of cattle tuberculosis in Russia from the beginning of the registration of the disease to the present that was discovered during the slaughter of animals. It has been determined that the registration of the bovine tuberculosis cases began in 1889 in Russia, however large-scale measures to combat cattle tuberculosis have been carried out since 1951. The elucidation of the epizootic situation in the country by the method of universal study of cattle herds with an intradermal tuberculin breakdown became the main driver that served as the beginning of these events. As of January 1, 1951 there were 9833 unfavorable spots. The introduction of the main provisions, approved recreational practice, into veterinary measures has significantly reduced the problem of bovine tuberculosis. So, as of 01.01.2017, there were 6 unfavorable spots in the Russian Federation, on 01.01.18 – 12 unfavorable ones, on 01.01.19 – 10 unfavorable ones, on 01.01.20 – 13 unfavorable ones, i.e. the number of unfavorable spots decreased to 6, but in subsequent years fluctuated and increased to 13. Moreover, in recent years, with a decrease in the number of unfavorable points and animals infected with tuberculosis, the improvement in the epizootic situation, there has been an increase in cases of detection of animals that respond to tuberculin with non-specific reactions. Key words: tuberculosis, cattle, allergic studies, intradermal test, unfavorable spots, farm revitalization, nonspecific reactions.
24 Chichkin A.N., Padilo L.P., Saltykov Yu.V., Podshibyakin D.V., Dresviannikova S.G., Dzhailidi G.A., Feodorova V.A. The study of insects of the order Diptera for the presence of the genetic material of the lumpy skin disease virus by a polymerase chain reaction
The article describes the results of the study of dipterous insects as the most likely vectors for lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) transmission. The research was conducted at the Saratov Region territory under the framework of expeditionary works in 2018 – 2019. Methodological approaches developed for insect collection following the relevant laboratory investigation were successfully used to prepare «Methodological recommendations for the collection, registration and laboratory testing of insects (Diptera) for the presence of the genetic material of the lumpy skin disease virus in cattle by polymerase chain reaction». The effectiveness of the use of UV and adhesive sticky insect traps was shown. Specific DNA of the LSDV in the insects (Muscidae) collected in September 2019 near the farms with the recent cases of LSD was detected by PCR. The presence the LSDV DNA in these specimens was proved by second generation sequencing (NGS). Key words: lumpy skin disease, LSDV, insects, PCR, Muscidae, epizootic situation.
32 Sokolova O.V., Drozdova L.I., Ryaposova M.V., Shilova E.N., Shkuratova I.A. Clinical, morphological and biochemical changes in cows upon invasion of Neospora caninum
The results of serological monitoring of N. caninum for 2015 – 2019 in agricultural organizations of the Sverdlovsk region are presented. Clinical, morphological and biochemical changes in cows during abortions caused by spontaneous invasion of N. caninum were studied. The average gestational age of the fetus was 165,8±4,6 days. In the enzyme immunoassay seroprevalence for N. caninum in the surveyed agricultural organization was established in 40,7 % of the studied animals. In the group of aborted cows 100,0 % of animals were seropositive, in the comparison group (pregnant cows) – 11,1 %. During histological examination of the fetal and maternal parts of the placenta characteristic signs of spontaneous abortion were found in the fetal heart, lungs, and liver – sarcosporidia, which are one of the signs of neosporosis. The metabolic blood picture of cows post-abortion period was characterized by signs of impaired total protein metabolism, accumulation of urea in the blood, increased total bilirubin with a simultaneous increase of GGTP, increased levels of AST and cholesterol, which may indicate a damage to the hepatobiliary system with signs of cytolysis and intrahepatic cholestasis. Immunohematological studies showed signs of the development of an infectious process (increased content of leukocytes, the absolute number of lymphocytes, stab and segmented neutrophils) and hypersensitivity of the body in response to the action of the pathogen antigen (increased level of eosinophils in 60 % of cows). Key words. N. caninum, abortions, cows, fetus, serological studies, morpho-functional changes, biochemical parameters, immunohematological indicators.
38 Belomyttseva E.S., Safiullin R.T. Effectiveness of using plasmapheresis in polyorganic intoxications after infection of dogs with Babesia
In the treatment of spontaneous babesiosis of dogs and other multi-organ failure in combination with etiotropic, symptomatic and pathogenetic therapy is plasmapheresis is used, which accelerates the healing process, shortens the recovery period and increases the effectiveness of treatment of carnivorous animals. Key words: dogs, ixodid mites, infection, babesiosis, imidocarb propionate, efficacy, plasmapheresis.
41 Mineeva O.V. Parasites of the common kilka in the Kuibyshev reservoir
The data of parasitological research of the Clupeonella cultriventris of the Kuibyshev reservoir are presented. 3 species of multicellular worms have been registered (Trematoda gen. sp., Capillaria tomentosa, Contracaecum microcephalum), the degree of fish invasion is insignificant. Key words: common kilka, macro parasites, Kuibyshev reservoir.
45 Alekhin Yu.N., Zhukov M.S., Lebedeva A.Yu. The effect of a complex probiotic on the hemostatic system in calves during the reconvalescence of bronchopneumonia
The effect of a complex probiotic on the hemostatic system in calves that suffered respiratory diseases. A controlled clinical study was conducted on 15 healthy calves and 30 animals with bronchopneumonia in aged 4 – 5 months, which were kept in group box (15 animals each) in a typical calf house with optimal microclimate parameters. It was shown that the use of the probiotic supplement Lactobifadol Forte at a dose of 12,5 g/goal for 13 days to calves during the recovery period after bronchopneumonia has a positive effect on the recovery processes of the hemostasis system. This effect of the symbionts used (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) is probably due to their direct participation in the digestion processes in the rumen, including the synthesis of substances that play a substrate or regulatory role in blood coagulation. In addition, the result of the course of probiotics is a decrease in endogenous intoxication, which excludes its destructive effect on the hemostatic system. Key words: bronchopneumonia, calves, hemostasis, rumen digestion, probiotics.
51 Annikov V.V., Annikova L.V., Kozhevnikova T.N., Agafonova A.D. Therapeutic efficacy of Gamavit in postoperative rehabilitation of dogs undergone operation for pyometra
The most common disease of the female dogs’ reproductive system is pyometra -purulent endometritis. Pyometra is poorly treated conservatively, so ovariohysterectomy is regarded as the main method of its treatment. The complex of disorders that develops in this pathological condition often leads to sepsis or septicopiemia and provokes a life-threatening shift in the body's homeostasis. In this regard, it is recommended to use drugs that reduce intoxication in reconvalescents and restore their natural resistance. One of such drugs, widely used in veterinary practice, is Gamavit. The aim of the study was to study the therapeutic effectiveness of Gamavit as a detoxifier and immunomodulator in postoperative therapy of dogs operated on for pyometra. In total, this study included 120 bitches diagnosed with pyometra, who were randomly (using a random number generator) divided into two equal groups – control and experimental. In the postoperative period, the control group dogs were recommended traditional symptomatic treatment, while the experimental group dogs were additionally given Gamavit 0,5 ml/kg s/c 1 time a day for 10 days. It was found that in patients of the experimental group, after 1 day, there was an increase in the level of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells, a decrease in hematocrit. On day 3, the main markers of erythropoiesis returned to the reference values. In patients of the control group, liver damage signs still remained even after a week of therapy – the content of bilirubin, transferases and cholesterol was significantly higher compared with the reference values. Creatinine and urea also remained elevated. In contrast, in the experimental group, bilirubin and cholesterol levels returned to normal, and transferase activity decreased, although it did not reach a normal level. Filtration capacity of the kidneys, judging by their main markers (creatinine, urea) also normalized. Thus, the use of Gamavit increases the effectiveness of postoperative therapy after ovariohysterectomy, stabilizes and improves the condition of seriously ill and aged animals, accelerates the recovery process of affected organs and systems, thereby contributing to the earlier recovery of the patients. Key words: dogs, pyometra, Gamavit, postoperative rehabilitation, detoxicant.
56 Vertiprakhov V.G., Gogina N.N., Ovchinnikova N.V. New approach to the assessment of the intestinal healh in poultry
The activities of the digestive enzymes and the presence of mycotoxins in the lyophilized feces in healthy vs. dispeptic broiler chicks (cross Smena-8) were studied. The digestive disorder was found to increase the activities of basic digestive enzymes: amylase 2,2-fold, lipase 3,2-fold, proteases by 40,3 %, trypsin 2,0-fold, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased by 17,6 % in compare to healthy chicks. Mycotoxins found in the diet in most cases could be found in feces; the corresponding mycotoxicoses could therefore be diagnosed by the assay of the feces. The results of the trial evidenced that the multidimensional assay of enzymatic activities and mycotoxin concentrations in feces is an innovative integrated method of the assessment of the intestinal health which could be used in test systems for poultry. Key words: activities of digestive enzymes, broiler chicks, lyophilization, mycotoxins, feces.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
60 Scherbakov P.N., Shnyakina T.N., Scherbakova T.B., Stepanova K.V. Changes in the microbiocenosis of bedding material when using sanitary and hygienic means
Diseases of young farm animals of infectious etiology cause great economic damage to livestock enterprises every year, which can be reduced by leveling the complications from viral diseases of young animals. We changed the microbiocenosis of the litter in calves by using a single application of a sanitary product. This remedy has reduced the amount of opportunistic microflora, which is mainly the cause of complications of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in calves. Key words: microflora, correction, respiratory diseases, sanitary and hygienic means, mold fungi, yeast, lactobacilli.