3 Makarov V.V. Conclusions from the current pandemic African swine fever
This brief review provides an interpretation of the current stage in the development of ASF panzootic. The most significant elements and features of the epizootology and control of this most important infection, the existing experience of working with epizootic outbreaks, interesting and promising scientific information, the emerging ideas about the strategy and ways of solving the ASF problem in the world are considered and discussed. Key words: African swine fever, panzootic, disease, epizootology, control.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
9 Glotova T.I., Koteneva S.V., Nefedchenko A.V., Glotov A.G. Mastitis agents in cows at big dairy farms and their resistance to antibacterial drugs
The data on the composition of microflora isolated from milk of cows with clinical signs of mastitis on large dairy farms in Siberia and the determination of its resistance to 17 antibacterial drugs of 9 pharmacological groups are presented. The isolated microflora was represented mainly by bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus – 32 %, Clostridium – 24 %, Streptococcus – 22 %, Salmonella – 7 %. Bacteria of other genera (Escherichia, Proteus, Corinebacterium) and fungi were rare. The number of isolated strains of bacteria pathogenic for outbred white mice was: Escherichia coli – 100 %, Staphylococcus aureus – 92,4 %, Streptococcus agalactiae – 96,3 %, Salmonella dublin – 60 %, Proteus vulgaris – 88,6 %. Toxigenic strains of bacteria of the genus Clostridium were isolated in 91,7 % of cases. Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are most resistant to polymyxin (99,5 %), cephalonium (98,9 %), ceftonitis (97,8 %), lincomycin (97,3 %), cefapirin (92,9 %) and ampicillin ( 92,3 %), and less – to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (24,0 %). Bacteria of the genus Streptococcus are most resistant to cephalonium and polymyxin (99,2 %), less to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (22,6 %). Representatives of the genus Clostridium are resistant to lincomycin and polymyxin, the genus Salmonella – to enrofloxacin, ceftonitis and cephalonium, Proteus vulgaris – to ampicillin, lincomycin, rifampicin, cefapirin, cephalonium and polymyxin, Escherichia coli – to the maximum amount of antibacterial drugs studied. The results showed that along with the bacteria described earlier the etiological role of the genus Clostridium has been established. The presented data underline the important role of timely diagnosis and treatment of mastitis. Key words: cattle, dairy complexes, bacteria, frequency of excretion, antibacterial drugs, resistance.
13 Zhelobitskaya E.A., Novikova S.V. Efficacy of drugs Colibac 6 and Colibac 12 in the treatment of pigs with colibacillosis, salmonellosis complicated
Evaluation of the effectiveness of drugs Colibac 6 and Colibac 12, containing 6 000 000 IU and 12 000 000 IU of colistin as an active ingredient, respectively, for bacterial infections in pigs has been carried out. Key words: Colibac, colistin, colibacillosis, salmonellosis, efficiency, piglets.
17 Akimova O.A., Yuzhkov A.G., Koritskaya M.A., Ivanov E.V., Dzhavadova G.A., Glotov A.G., Glotova T.I., Verkhovsky O.A., Aliper T.I. Isolation and identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 3 at a farm in Russian Federation
The present publication describes the first case of isolation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 3 in Russian Federation. This pathogen’s etiological role in the development and dissemination of the disease has been established. A real-time-PCR-based diagnostic assay for the detection of the RNA of this virus has been designed. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus’s genome fragment revealed the largest degree of homology with BVDV type 3 isolates from Italy and Brazil. It has been demonstrated that BVDV type 3 can be cultivated in MDBK continuous cell culture, as well as in primary calf kidney cell culture. The diagnostic assay designed as part of this study is suitable for use for the purpose of diagnosis and surveillance of bovine viral diarrhoea caused by BVDV type 3, as well as for the purpose of testing live vaccines for the presence of BVDV type 3 contaminations. Key words: bovine viral diarrhea, BVDV, BVDV3, cell cultures, real-time PCR.
22 Pchelnikov A.V., Yatsentyuk S.P. Detection of the genetic material of gammagerpesviruses in livestock farms of the Moscow and Tver regions
Bovine gammagerpesviruses types 4 and 6 (BoHV-4 and BoHV-6) are the least studied from of all viruses of the family Herpesviridae, which are etiological agents of various infectious of cattle. Currently, their role in the nosological structure of infectious pathology of cattle, as independent etiological agents, remains controversial and not fully understood. We detected BoHV-4 genetic material in 7 out of 20 studied farms in the Moscow Region (35 %) and in 3 out of 17 surveyed farms in the Tver region (17,6 %). The analysis of all the isolated samples allowed us to assign them to the European genotype BoHV-4 (genotype 1). Genetic material of BoHV-6 was isolated in 1 farm from the Moscow region and 10 farms from the Tver region, which accounted for 5 % and 58,8 % of the farms surveyed in these subjects of the Russian Federation, respectively. According to the results of the epizootological survey of all the studied farms, taking into account the analysis of scientific literature, at the moment, more questions have arisen than answers have been received. Nevertheless, the issue of the presence of these pathogens in different regions of our country, from its European part to the regions of Siberia, has been finally resolved, and therefore other issues need to be resolved, since the biological safety of domestic animal husbandry may depend on it. We’ll continue our research in this direction. Key words: gammaherpesvirus, Bovine gammaherpesvirus 4, Bovine gammaherpesvirus 6, BoHV-4, BoHV-6.
27 Sibgatullova A.K., Titov I.A. B602L gene as a marker of intrigenotype differentiation of African swine fever virus isolated in the territory of the Russian Federation
The article is devoted to comparative analysis and detection of differences in the nucleotide sequences of the B602L gene region of Russian, European, Asian isolates and strains of African swine fever. The analysis of the isolates showed the possibility of intragenotypic differentiation based on a comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the B602L gene region of the African swine fever virus. Phylogenetic analysis made it possible to distribute the studied isolates into groups. Key words: African swine fever, sequencing, isolates, gene B602L, strains, phylogenetic analysis.
33 Chadaeva A.A., Povolyaeva O.S., Lapteva O.G., Lunitsin A.V., Yurkov S.G. Sensitivity of cell cultures of various tissue and species origin to Aujeszky's disease virus
Aujeszky's disease virus is a pantropic virus circulating in many mammalian species populations and generating new genetically modified variants of the virus with different virulence. Searching for new virus-sensitive cell cultures for primary isolation of a pathogen which do not change its biological properties - is one of the main tasks of cell biotechnology in virology. This study aimed to determine the sensitivity of cell cultures derived from rabbit tissues (lung, liver, spleen, cartilage tissue) and from bat kidney to pseudorabies virus from the perspective to assess the possibility to use them for ADV isolation as well as to consider the opportunity for the species mentioned above to be potentially involved in epidemic processes. Key words: cell cultures, rabbit, bat, cytopathic effect, Aujeszky's disease virus.
38 Abduganiev O.A., Shakarboev E.B., Golovanov V.I. Helminths of pike perch (Sander lucioperca L.) of water bodies of the Syrdarya region of Uzbekistan
A total of 117 fish specimens were examined in fish farms, canals and natural reservoirs of the Syrdarya region of Uzbekistan. The total infestation of pike perch with helminths was 67,5 % of the infected fish, 19 parasite species were identified. Of these, cestodes – 4 species, trematodes – 7, nematodes – 6 and acanthocephalans – 2 species belonging to 17 genera, 12 families, 7 orders and 4 classes. Of the 19 species of helminths found, 12 are found in larval form, 7 species in sexually mature form, which cause serious diseases in the studied fish. Key words: helminths, pike perch, predatory fish, invasion, extensiveness and intensity of invasion, Syrdarya, Uzbekistan.
41 Zhukov M.S., Alekhin Yu.N. Neonatal diarrhea as a risk factor for the development of respiratory pathology
The aim of this work is to study the pathophysiological mechanisms of the influence of neonatal diarrhea on the risk of developing respiratory diseases in young animals. Newborn calves (n=60) were divided into two groups, the first (control, n=30) included animals in which no symptoms of gastrointestinal tract pathology were observed at the age of 3 to 60 days, the second (n=30) – at the age of 3 – 7 days have had neonatal diarrhea. Blood for the study was taken from calves of the first group at the age of 3, 10 and 17 days, the second – at the age of 3 days, as well as individually on the 2nd day of illness and 7 days after the completion of the course of treatment. It was found that in young animals of the second group, respiratory diseases were manifested more often. The reason for this is the long-term persisting nonspecific residual effects, including anemia and endogenous intoxication syndrome. The highest prognostic value for calves who have had diarrhea are indicators of AWM254 (r=0,72), AWM280 (r=0,70), NEH (r = 0.70), AWM237 (r=0,63), hemoglobin (r= -0,58) and iron (r= -0,52). The revealed mechanisms of the influence of neonatal diarrhea on the risk of developing respiratory diseases in them indicate three directions of prevention: a decrease in gastrointestinal diseases among newborns; assessment of the usefulness of their treatment; determination and leveling of residual pathological phenomena using antitoxic and antianemic agents. Key words: calves, diarrhea, anemia, endogenous intoxication, respiratory diseases.
48 Okolelova T.M., Engashev S.V. Features of bird lipid food: problems and solutions
The article shows the important role of fats in poultry feeding, which for various reasons, from 20 % to 50 % pass through the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, not only the productivity of poultry decreases and the cost of feed for products increases, but also veterinary-sanitary problems arise. First of all, poorly digested fat negatively affects the condition of the litter, and enhances the gas contamination of the room. The bird appears dermatitis on the sole of the legs and chest. The negative influence of low digestibility of fats in birds is compounded by the fact that fats can interact with other nutrients in the intestinal lumen. The most significant is the saponification reaction, which occurs during the interaction of free fatty acids with minerals of compound feed (calcium cations), as a result of which bone mineralization is disturbed in both young and adult birds, and the quality of the shell deteriorates. Due to the urgency of the problem, the article, in the form of a review of scientific publications and the results of its own research, describes factors affecting the digestibility and use of feed lipids, and shows the role of exogenous fat emulsifiers in improving the efficiency of bird feeding and the prevention of certain diseases of the bird (dermatitis, mineral disorders sharing). Key words: lipids, fat emulsifiers, anti-nutritional factors of feed, poultry productivity, lipid digestibility, use of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, feed costs, product quality, abdominal fat content.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
54 Betin A.N., Frolov A.I. Prevention and elimination of mycotoxins in feed with adsorbents
The article presents the results of scientific and production experience on a comparative test in the diets of cows with various adsorbents of mycotoxins. During the period of the experiment, the average daily milk yield of the cows of the experimental groups increased, the quality indicators of the content of fat and protein in milk improved. The use of adsorbents improved the most important biochemical parameters of blood: total protein, glucose, urea, macro- and microelements, vitamins A and E. Net income from the sale of milk from 1 head per day using adsorbents increased from 3,4 to 29,8 rubles. Key words: adsorbents, productivity, quality indicators of milk, blood biochemistry, economics.
58 Salomatin V.V., Ryadnov A.A., Ryadnova T.A., Ryadnova Yu.A. Influence of feed supplement Biozinc on blood biochemical indicators characterizing protein exchange in broiler chickens
The authors present the results of studies on the effect of the feed additive Biozinc on the biochemical blood parameters characterizing protein metabolism in broiler chickens. It was found that the introduction of Biozinc into broiler chickens from experimental groups (I experimental group – 1 liter per 1 ton of water; II experimental group – 2 liters per 1 ton of water) increases the total protein content in blood serum within the physiological norm, albumin, globulin, aminotransferase activity (AST and ALT), in comparison with control. The broilers of the experimental groups also had a higher serum protein index. Key words: broiler chickens, complete feed, drinking water, total protein, albumin, globulins, protein index, urea, AST and ALT activity.