3 Orlyankin B.G., Aliper T.I. Coronaviruses of swine
The present review summarises currently available knowledge on coronaviruses affecting swine: transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus and porcine deltacoronavirus. Furthermore, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, microscopic and macroscopic lesions associated with the diseases caused by the said viruses as well their diagnosis and prevention are described. Key words: porcine coronaviruses, dissemination, clinical signs, diagnosis, specific prophylaxis.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
11 Koptev V.Yu., Shkil N.A., Leonova M.A., Balybina N.Yu., Penkova I.N., Onishchenko I.S. Experience in the use of biotinylated derivative of oxidized dextran for the prevention of infectious diseases of calves
The article presents information about preventive efficiency of a biotinylated derivative of oxidized dextran (BOD) in the gastro-intestinal and respiratory diseases of newborn calves. The experiment was performed on newborn calves of the Simmental breed, divided according to the principle of analogues into two groups – experimental and control (n=80). Animals of the experimental group, starting from the first day of life, five times with an interval of 72 hours, intramuscularly administered the BOD in a dose of 3 ml. The animals were monitored throughout the experiment (30 days). The General condition of animals, appetite, thirst, and the presence of clinical signs of diseases of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract were recorded. Samples of biological material (nasal mucus, fecal matter) were taken from all diseased animals for microbiological studies and typing of the pathogen. It was found that the use of the BOD according to this scheme can reduce the incidence of newborn calves with gastrointestinal diseases by 12,5 %, and respiratory diseases – by 15 % compared to the control. Key words: gastrointestinal diseases, calves, live weight, natural resistance, prevention.
14 Sakidibirov O.P., Baratov M.O. Features of the fight against bovine brucellosis in the conditions of animal husbandry
The drive-away system of animal husbandry assumes the dependence of animals on numerous environmental factors, natural-geographical, economic, which, under specific criteria, have a significant impact on the epizootic situation for brucellosis. Large and small cattle are driven to summer pastures from farms of all forms of ownership, where they are located from May to September-October. After harvesting the main agricultural crops (cereals, potatoes), the animals return to the farms and to the rural areas for the winter. Taking into account the high resistance of brucella to the external environment, the joint maintenance of all sexes and age groups of cattle and other species, it is impossible to exclude the possibility of over-infection of animals on alpine pastures and during driving. Key words: brucellosis, distillation, vaccine, immunity tension, geographical features, seasonal.
17 Glotov A.G., Nefedchenko A.V., Koteneva S.V., Glotova T.I. An infection caused by pestivirus H in dairy farms
The article describes for the first time an outbreak of infection caused by pestivirus H (BVDV-3) in cattle on three large dairy farms presumably associated with the introduction of the pathogen into nonimmune herds with a live vaccine against lumpy skin disease. Clinical signs were recorded in animals ranging in age from three months to several years. Their nature and intensity varied across farms and were expressed in the form of systemic infection, enteritis, mucosal disease, respiratory syndrome, abortion, decreased fertility, increased service period and activation of opportunistic microflora. In farm No. 1, the disease was severe due to the involvement in the infectious process of the bovine herpes virus type 4 and bacteria of the Pasteurellaceae families and Clostridium spp. The morbidity of animals reached 90 % and the mortality rate was 100 %. The virus has been detected in a wide range of internal organs, including lymphoid organs, lungs and intestines. In another farm – only in the blood and the contents of the nodular vesicles, and in the third – in all the internal organs of aborted fetuses. The nucleotide sequence of the sequences of three virus isolates detected in sick animals showed their identity with the BVDV-3 strain present in the vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis of the 51UTR genome sequence region of the isolates showed that they belong to the virus strains isolated in Italy and Brazil. The economic damage associated with the disposal of animals in one farm during the outbreak of the disease amounted to 12,5 million roubles. Key words: cattle, viral infections, Pestivirus H, vaccine, RT-PCR, nucleotide sequence.
24 Subbotina I.A., Gromov I.N. Clinical symptoms and pathomorphology of spontaneous coronaviral infection with SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets (Mustela putorius)
The paper considers the clinical symptoms, pathoanatomical and histological changes in the dark ferret (Mustela putorius) during spontaneous infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The short incubation period (5 – 6 days), the rapid increase in symptoms and the death of animals (1 – 2 days) indicate a high degree of susceptibility of this animal species to SARS-CoV-2. The leading clinical symptoms (depression, fever, shortness of breath, tachycardia, polypnea, cyanosis of the visible mucous membranes, abdominal type of respiration) indicate lung damage and the development of pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency. The detected structural disorders in the lungs of ferrets are typical for acute pneumonitis (alveolitis) of viral etiology, complicated by respiratory distress syndrome with a complication of purulent (absceding) pneumonia. The immediate cause of death is membranogenic pulmonary edema, acute heart failure. Deep and irreversible changes in the microcirculation vessels of the internal organs (disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome) are a sign of the development of infectious shock. Jaundice is a concomitant process, probably associated with intensive intravascular hemolysis of red blood cells. Fatty hepatosis is the morphological equivalent of animal intoxication. Key words: ferrets, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, clinical symptoms, pathoanatomical changes, histological examination.
28 Balashova E.A., Slivko I.A., Lunitsin A.V. Analysis of research results at FGBNU FIСViM imported cattle for bluetongue
The review presents the results of the analysis of the effectiveness of the use of laboratory methods for bluetongue diagnostics at the FGBNU FITSViM when testing clinically healthy cattle transported from bluetongue-disadvantaged countries. Key words: bluetongue, disease, laboratory diagnostics, long term complement binding reaction, enzyme immunoassay, neutralization reaction, polymerase chain reaction.
32 Postevoy A.N., Andreyanov O.N. Fasciolosis of trade artiodactyls animals of Central Russia
The causative agent of fascioliasis is regularly registered in the Central region of Russia, both in agricultural ruminants and in wild animals. In the forest zone of Russia, in the areas of the habitat of wild artiodactyls, according to researchers, up to 30 species of helminths have been registered in the European elk and roe deer. The aim of our work was to study the trematodofauna of helminths of commercial artiodactyls obtained in hunting farms of the Central region of Russia – Bryansk, Moscow, Tver and Ryazan regions. The objects of the study were wild artiodactyls animals – European elk (Alces alces), European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The collection of biological material for the study (gastrointestinal tract, liver of animals, etc.) was carried out during the licensed hunting of these artiodactyls on the territory of hunting farms in the period from 2013 to the beginning of 2021. 86 heads of artiodactyls, including 17 moose aged from 3 to 7 years, 31 roe deer aged from 2 to 5 years, and 38 wild boars aged 2 – 5 years, were examined (using the method of partial helminthological autopsy). Among wild animals, according to the results of a parasitological autopsy, fasciol infestation was detected in two European roe deer and one wild boar. The extension invasion of European roe deer was 6,4 %. The intensity invasion of animal is 14 and 25 trematodes. Wild boar has EI – 2,6 % and II – 4 trematodes. When examining the liver of moose, the causative agent of fascioliasis was not detected. Key words: european elk, european roe deer, wild boar, fasciolosis, intensity invasion (II), extension invasion (EI), Alces alces, Capreolus capreolus, Sus scrofa.
35 Fedorova A.O. Erythropoesis of red bone marrow in rats under stress and its correction
In industrial animal husbandry, there are many stress factors that affect the body of animals and affect the quantity and quality of livestock products. Whatever the causes of stress, the general mechanism of its development is the same, however, the response of animals to stress and its duration is individual. The concept of reactions of blood systems, under the influence of stress factors, requires an in-depth study of shifts on the part of the bone marrow at various stages of damage to the hematopoietic system. The results of red bone marrow studies can prove the variability of myelogram change under the action of certain stress factors that change homeostasis. The purpose of the work is to study the quantitative reaction of the erythroid sprout of hematopoietic to the effects of cold stress. The research was carried out in the conditions of the pathomorphology laboratory of the FSBOU VO «Far Eastern State Agrarian University» on infertile white rats – females, 11 – 12 months of age. In the first experimental group, the probiotic drug Intestevit was fed with food. The animals of the second experimental group used the antipsychotic preparation Aminazine. Animals of the third test group were exposed to cold stress without any preparations. When exposed to cold stress factor on rat body, erythroid sprout of red bone marrow hematopoiesis is suppressed in all studied groups of animals. The most intense erythroid growth inhibition of red bone marrow hematopoiesis is observed on the eighth day of the experiment in animals that did not use any drugs and in rats receiving the Aminazine neuroleptic by 9,7 % and 19,7 %, respectively. In rats treated with the probiotic drug Intestevit, on the eighth day of stress, no further reduction in erythropoiesis was observed. Key words: stress, red bone marrow, probiotic drug, neuroleptic, laboratory animals.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
39 Semenov E.I., Tremasova A.M., Matrosova L.E. Kadikov I.R., Egorov V.I., Aslanov R.M., Vasilevsky N.M. Cases of mass poisoning of animals, birds and fish some regions of the Russian Federation and the CIS countries
The results of many years of research aimed at investigating cases of mass mortality of poultry, animals and fish from various regions of the Russian Federation and some CIS countries are summarized and presented. The studies were carried out using toxicological, chromatographic and other methods. Hundreds of cases of mass diseases of animals and birds have been identified, most of which are accompanied by poisoning. It was found that the main factors of toxic effects were: mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, aflatoxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, sterigmatocystin), pesticides, toxic elements (cadmium, selenium), potent toxic substances (zoocoumarin, ratindane, cyanides), nitrates, nitrites, alkaloids. Key words: poisoning, feed, animals, poultry, fish, mycotoxins, toxic elements, pesticides, nitrates and nitrites, poisonous plants.
44 Stelmakh S.A., Grigor'eva M.N., Ochirov O.S., Garkusheva N.M., Mognonov D.M., Tikhonenkov D.V. On the possibility of using water-soluble poliguanidines for therapy and prevention of ectoparasitic invasion in fish under their artificial maintenance
Investigations of the toxic effect of the polymer in relation to free-living protists, the closest relatives of agents of the main fish diseases, have been carried out. It was found that all polymer products have a pronounced toxic effect. The concentrations that cause the complete death of most protists are in the range of 1 – 1,5 mg/L, which is below the threshold concentration of the lethal effect for fish determined earlier. Using the bioluminescent method based on the highly sensitive microbial biosensor "Ecolum" and the environmental control device "Biotox 10M", which is one of the express methods of biological monitoring of the environment, the toxicity of the obtained copolymers and the toxicological parameter of the EC50 trial monitoring were determined. The test organism showed minimal sensitivity to the HMDA: OMDA: GHCl copolymer. The EC50 value was 0,51 mg/l. The lowest EC50 value (0,32 mg/l) is for octyl-substituted PGMGhx, which indicates its high toxicity for this test system. Thus a combination of the results of a previously conducted toxicity study for fish and the present study for protists the HMDA: OMDA: GHCl copolymer is of the greatest interest for further research, including its approbation in the treatment of ectoparasitic invasions in fish. Key words: polyguanidines, treatment of fish invasions, fish ectoparasites, toxicity, protists, bioluminescence, bacterial test "Ecolum".
49 Lazareva M.V., Lazareva I.S., Shkil N.A. Efficacy of essential micronutrient chelate compounds on quail growth
The article is devoted to the current problem of mineral nutrition of birds. The results of the study of the effectiveness of introduction of Bioferron and Biocink preparations, which are chelated iron and zinc compounds, into the diet of quail are presented. The tendency of superiority of living mass in quail of experimental groups has been established. The largest increase in live mass was noted in 1 experimental group, where the Bioferron preparation was present in the diet, by 259,4% (P<0,05), in 2 experimental group when using the Biocink preparation, the increase in live mass occurred by 220,7 % (P<0,01). In the control group – by 84,1%. This is confirmed by the study of the average daily increase in live mass, which was 2,45 g for the entire growing period (37 days) in the 1st experimental group, 2,53 g in the 2nd. In the control group of quail – 2,04 g. The absolute increase in the live mass of quail of the experimental groups during growing 15 – 37 days was 53,09 and 47,63 g, or 152,9 and 137,1 % higher than the control group analogues. A higher relative increase was revealed in the 2nd experimental group during the growing period of 15 – 37 days – 112,94 %. Key words: quail, essential trace elements, chelates, zinc, iron, live mass, average daily growth.
52 Omarov M.O., Yurina N.A., Ostrenko K.S., Ovcharova A.N. The effect of the antioxidant dihydroquercetin and the immunostimulator arabinogalactane on the fish productivity of sturgeon juveniles
The purpose of this study was to study the effectiveness of diets with the inclusion of the antioxidant dihydroquercetin and the immunostimulator arabinogalactan in feeding young sturgeon. During the scientific experiment, a certain effect of the fed components was revealed: a new generation antioxidant-dihydroquercetin and an immunostimulator arabinogalactan in starter feed for sturgeon fry (Russian sturgeon) on their growth rate and average daily weight gain. The influence of the studied micro-components on the safety of sturgeon fry, as well as their impact on changes in the feed coefficient and fatness calculated by Fulton in juvenile sturgeon fish was studied. The object of the above study was the fingerlings of sturgeon fish (Russian sturgeon). The scientific experiment was performed according to the generally accepted method of M.A. Shcherbina. The experiment was conducted on 4 groups of fish with a duration of 180 days. A full-fledged mixed feed «Bioeffect-Sturgeon» Start was developed, which in its composition and nutritional value was not inferior to foreign analogues. Feed is presented in the form of granules of 0,3, 0,5, 0,8 and 1,0 mm. It was found that when feeding the antioxidant dihydroquercetin and the immunostimulator arabinogalactan as part of full-fledged starter feed for young sturgeon, their live weight increases by 15,0 – 20,1 %, the average daily live weight gains-by 15,6 – 20,0 %, safety-by 2,6 – 20,4 %, fatness according to Fulton – by 3,1 – 8,4 %, and the feed coefficient decreases by 11,0 – 12,9 %. Consequently, the addition of dihydroquercetin and arabinogalactan to the starter formula of complete mixed feeds for sturgeon fish contributed to a significant increase in fish productivity. Key words: juvenile sturgeon fish, complete feed, immunostimulants, antioxidants, weight, gain, feed coefficient, fatness.
55 Gergel M.A., Zayceva E.V., Soltynskaya I.V., Krylova E.V., Putintseva A.V., Bogomazova A.N., Vasilevich F.I. Development and validation of a method for semi-quantitative assessment of the content of chicken DNA in meat products
To improve the quality control system for meat products, we developed a real-time PCR method for semi-quantitative assessment of the content of chicken DNA in meat products. The validation showed that the method is suitable to analyze raw meat, processed meat, and cooked meat products, except for canned products. The method helps differentiate chicken DNA detection resulting from food fraud and fair сases which derive from using the chicken egg in product recipe or product contamination with trace amounts of undeclared meat ingredients. Key words: meat products, raw materials, Gallus gallus, real-time PCR.
59 Zakharychev V.V., Ispiryan A.Z., Smelkova O.I., Sysueva S.V. Development of a method for differential quantitative determination of D-carnitine and L-carnitine
A method for the differential determination of the optical isomers of L- and D-carnitine in feed, feed supplements, and veterinary drugs in the concentration range 0,1 – 50 % was developed. The technique is based on derivatization of matrix extracts with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography on columns with ion-exchange and chiral sorbents with fluorescence detection. Key words: feed, feed supplements, chiral high performance liquid chromatography, L-carnitine, D-carnitine.