CONTENTS №8-2022

3 Fedorov Yu.N., Klukina V.I., Bogomolova O.A., Romanenko M.N., Tsar'kova K.N. Passive immunity:  indicators and criterion of evaluation in newborn calves
 
The objective of this short review is to summarise of the literature of passive transfer in calves and interpretation of achieving proper levels of passive immunity in calves, including the importance of colostrum for the bovine neonate,  immunobiological composition and properties of bovine colostrum, IgG absorption, direct and indirect methods testing for passive transfer status and failure of passive transfer. The present review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of mainly focuses on immune components in bovine colostrum, explores the current knowledge in the context understanding of the immune function of colostrum, its bioactive components, and its potential for health newborn calf. Key words: passive immunity, colostrum, immunoglobulins, immune components, diagnostic testing, calves.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.03-09

EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

10 Zhuravleva E.A., Shulyak A.F.,  Galndbek T.V. Orthopneumoviral infection: frequency of antibody detection among cattle in European part of Russian Federation

The results of a serological investigation revealed a limited prevalence of orthopneumovirus infection in cattle in the European part of the Russian Federation. Antibodies to orthopneumovirus were detected in 6 out of 31 (19,3%) herds with history of respiratory diseases. There were antibodies ranged from 4 to 79,5%. The levels of neutralizing and ELISA antibodies were low. In herds free from respiratory diseases 0.4% of seropositive animals were detected. This significant difference indicated the possible role of orthopneumovirus in some outbreaks. The frequency of antibody detection among cattle from European countries was higher and ranged from 4.2 to 40 %. Antibodies were found in 4,4% of sheep and in none of the wild ruminants. That indicated a slight effect of these animals on the epizootic process of orthopneumovirus infection. Key words: Orthopneumovirus, cattle, antibodies, seroprevalence, virus neutralization test, ELISA, sheep, wild ruminants.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.10-14

INFECTION DISEASE

15 Minkova S.I., Koltsov A.Yu., Kholod N.S., Koltsova G.S. Phylogenetic analysis of ASF virus isolates of various serogroups based on the E183L gene sequence

ASF outbreaks are recorded in many countries in Africa, Europe, Asia and Latin America. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ASF isolates from different geographic areas twenty-four genotypes were identified. The genotyping is useful for tracking the geographical spread of the ASF virus, but does not reflect the biological properties of the isolates. According to the immunological properties of the ASFV, it was proposed to divide its isolates into 8 seroimmunotypes. The search for new genetic markers that make it possible to predict the seroimmunotype is relevant in the development of vaccines against ASF. Protein p54 is an important antigen in the formation of protective immunity in ASF, and its sequence is variable in different isolates. We performed a comparative phylogenetic analysis of ASFV isolates of different seroimmunotypes based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of p54. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the p54 protein did not reveal the separation of isolates by serogroup, whereas analysis based on the nucleotide sequence of its E183L gene made it possible to determine their serogroups. The distribution of isolates of different serotypes into phylogenetic groups in the analysis of the full-length E183L gene demonstrated a greater correlation with their serotypes than the analysis of the variable part of this gene. The proposed approach can be used as an addition to existing methods for preliminary serotyping of ASF virus isolates. Key words: African swine fever virus, E183L gene, phylogenetic analysis. 
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.15-21

22 Lyapina A.M., Lavrukhin M.S., Zaitsev S.S., Khizhnyakova M.A., Feodorova V.A. Effect of SARS-COV-2 virus Omicron variant S-protein polymorphism on the induction of T-cell immune response in dogs

The causative agent of COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide range of hosts, including pets in close proximity to humans. The new variant of the virus Omicron is characterized by a large number of mutations in the gene encoding the immunodominant S-protein, which can potentially lead to the escape of the pathogen from the immune response of animals. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the S-protein polymorphism of the SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron on the induction of the specific T-cell immune response in dogs via in silico analysis of S- protein epitopes possessing high affinity to MHC class I molecules. On the model of virus strains – representatives of four clades of the new variant Omicron, i.e. GRA, GR, G and O, it was shown that despite the high variability of the amino acid sequence of the S-protein in the SARS-CoV-2 new variant, a significant number of T-cell epitopes (more than 85 %) remains conservative with the respect to the reference strain, suggesting the induction of a cytotoxic cellular response against the new variant in these companion animals. The variability of non-conserved epitopes is represented not only by the appearance of new high-affinity ligands to DLA I in the S-protein sequences of representatives of clades GRA and O, but also by the loss in Omicron strains of a number of epitopes predicted for the reference wild strain, which may determine a decrease in the effectiveness of cellular immune reactions in dogs. Key words: SARS-CoV-2, Omicron, in silico, S-protein, polymorphism, T-cell immune response, CD8+epitopes, dogs.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.22-28

INVASIVE DISEASE

30 Postevoy A.N., Andreyanov O.N., Danilenko A.V. To the prevention of helminthiasis of farm animals

Helminthic diseases are common in many animal species. Most helminths, especially pastures, have intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of development (larvae and imagos of insects, crustaceans, reptiles, and mollusks). Gastropods are the sources of most trematode and nematode infestations of animals and humans. A number of stages of development of larval forms of helminths occur in the body of these invertebrates. The resistance of mollusks to the effects of physical, chemical and biological factors depends on the thickness of the scintillating layer of the integumentary epithelium and the density of collagen fibers forming the integument of the skin-muscle sac of the invertebrate. Molluscocide treatment of grazing meadows, for example, in the Central region of Russia, should be carried out during the active state of mollusks (the period of ikrometa, development and growth) – in May-June (after the meltwater meltdown) and in August-September at a water temperature of at least 13 0C and pH≤7,6. Methods of application of various forms of molluscocides are chosen depending on the biological characteristics of invertebrates, their ecology, conditions of use, biotopes, etc. Preparations of plant origin are environmentally friendly and slightly toxic with respect to mammals, fish, amphibians, hydrobionts and vegetation. Also, this group of molluscocides is inexpensive, affordable and safe to use. Key words: molluscocidal agent, powder, Smolevka white, saponins, spirituous extract, Silene latifolia.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.30-32

33 Yaroschuk A.I. Modern oral anthelmintic drugs for poultry (review)
The article presents the data of the analysis of modern anthelmintic preparations used for agricultural poultry in Russia, provides generalizing information on their composition, chemical groups, and also assign them to individual bird species or age and gender groups. The article concludes a number of conclusions that help practicing poultry farmers to carry out planned therapeutic and preventive treatment of birds. Key words: poultry farming, helminthiasis, drugs, treatment of birds, prevention of helminthiasis, nematodes.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.33-36

OBSTTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY

38 Plemyashov K.V., Korochkina E.A., Nikitin V.V. The efficacy of vitamin-mineral supplementation using to dairy cows in the transition period 

The purpose of the study was to study the effectiveness of the use of loose and bolus forms of vitamin and mineral substances in cows in the transition period to detect analysis and increase the level of blood hormones. The research was carried out in one of the farms of the Leningrad region on black-and-white cows with a productivity of 5 625 to 10 000 kg of milk. Blood was taken from animals (n=10) four times: 21 and 10 days before, and then on the 2nd and 14th day after calving. Two groups were formed. Cows of the experimental group daily throughout the entire transit period of the discovery of a mineral supplement (organic trace elements: zinc, manganese, copper, cobalt, chromium, selenium) in the form of a gelatin test – a bolus (75 and 100 grams per single intake in the first turn) and the second half of the transit period, respectively). Boluses were administered intraruminally with a bolus dispenser. Gelatin absorption occurs 30 minutes after its penetration into the rumen. Cows of the control group  find a vitamin-mineral complex in loose form (vitamins A, D, E, organic selenium) daily during the transition period (200 and 100 grams per one first and half of the transition period, respectively). Clinical and hormonal blood tests are carried out in accordance with the recommendations. It was found that in the blood of the control group on the 4th day after there was a slight decrease in the level of erythrocytes in comparison to 4,7±1,3х1012/l according to the lower limit of the norm. All animals during the experiment showed a decrease in hemoglobin levels. The tendency to increase the level of platelets in animals with experimental and control groups in the second half of the transit period, as well as in the control group 10 days before calving up to 221±15,4х109/l. There was a decrease in the level of eosinophils in the blood of all major groups 10 days before calving (7,4±1,9 %). the most pronounced increase in the number of segmented neutrophils was detected in the first half of the transit period in the blood of animals in the control group (46,8±3,6 and 45,2±2,7 %), as well as in the second frequency of the transit period in the blood of animals in the experimental group (52,2±3,8 and 53,0±5,1 %). 10 days before registration, a significant value of lymphocytes in the blood of animals of the experimental and control groups was registered by 1,3 times with a tendency to the indicator of the latter (p<0,05). The concentration of free thyroxine and cortisol in the blood of all animals is within the normal range. There was a significant increase in cortisol levels in experimental animals and the control group on the 2nd day after calving (2,2 times, p=0,01), as well as the detection of estradiol in the blood of experimental animals and the control group 10 days before calving (p<0,05; 595,9±131,6 pmol/l and 1546,9±371,9 pmol/l, respectively). Thus, it is advisable to use vitamin and mineral substances in cows during the transition period, including fat-soluble vitamins and organic trace elements, control of the content and phosphorus levels during the transition period, as well as an individual approach to choosing the form of vitamin and mineral components. Key words: clinical characteristics, hormonal concentrations, dairy cows, the transition period, vitamin-mineral supplementations.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.8.38-41

NONINFETIOUS DISEASE

42 Ermolaeva О.K., Matrosova L.E., Khammadov N.I., Tanaseva S.A., Tarasova E.Yu. Influence of the feed additive on microbiocenosis of birds with mycotoxicosis 

Mycotoxin contamination is a constant problem of feed quality and safety, leading to significant losses in livestock and poultry production. The intestine is the first protective barrier against the various types of feed mycotoxins that enter the body and is closely associated with other tissues through the enterohepatic circulation. Compared to mammals, birds are more sensitive to mycotoxins and have a slower absorption rate. Thus, in birds, the gut is an important target tissue for toxins. This article discusses the impact of mycotoxins on the avian gut microbiota. The studies were carried out on laying hens of the Lohmann cross 260 – 320 days old, divided into 4 groups of 10 in each. Birds of the first group (control) received pure feed, the second group received toxic feed by introducing mycotoxins into the diet: T-2 toxin (2,5 mg/kg), zearalenone (1,7 mg/kg), aflatoxin B1 (3,3 mg/kg), the third group of birds with pure compound feed received a complex feed additive consisting of enterosorbents of mineral and organic origin, the amino acid methionine and a plant hepatoprotector, the birds of the fourth group, along with toxic compound feed, were included in the diet of a feed additive. Studies have revealed a change in the balance between normo- and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms and yeast fungi in the intestines of birds with experimental combined mycotoxicosis of laying hens. The use of the feed additive contributed to the normalization of the level of intestinal biocenosis and the complete restoration of the level of bifidus and lactoflora. Key words: T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, mycotoxicosis, laying hens, feed additive, intestines, microflora.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.8.42-47

47 Sergeeva E.S., Yakunina M.N. Clinical and morphological characteristics of hemangiosarcoma in small domestic animals

A retrospective study was carried out on 86 animals with feline and dog hemangiosarcoma. An age-related predisposition was revealed in animals older than 5 – 10 years (50 %) and older than 10 years (46,5 %). The breed predisposition was noted in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds (9,3 and 8,1%, respectively), as well as in Yorkshire Terriers in 5,8 %. The visceral form with a lesion of the spleen predominates in 51 %, less often the soft tissue form in 34 %. The visceral form is characterized by an aggressive course with the detection of metastases in 16 % during the initial diagnosis – in the liver in 42,8 %, omentum in 42,8 %, lymph nodes in 28,5 % and in the lungs in 7,14 %. Secondary haemabdomain is diagnosed by ultrasound in 16% with primary diagnosis and in 6% with interoperative revision, in addition, rupture of the tumor capsule is visualized in 26,7%. Primary anemia was noted in 30,2% and leukocytosis in 19,7%. Violation of the hemostatic system is noted in 40,4%, mainly due to a change in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with an increase of 26% and a decrease of 14,2%. Key words: hemangiosarcoma, angiosarcoma, dogs, cats, spleen, soft tissues.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.8.47-50

52 Mineev A.K. Liver pathology in two commercial fish species of the Kuibyshev reservoir

The results of a study of the histological state of the liver in two mass fish species of the Kuibyshev reservoir: roach (Rutilus runilus Linnaeus, 1758) and bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) are presented. Six types of detected liver pathologies were studied using standard histological techniques. The excess of normal indicators of the occurrence of fish with all detected liver histopathologies in populations was recorded, which is one of the signs of their distress in the ecological conditions of the reservoir. The number of individuals with liver histopathologies reached high values, and the occurrence of detected types of pathologies exceeded the value of their spontaneous formation (1 %). The revealed pathologies had different degrees of severity for fish (2 – 5 points on a five-point scale). Irreversible and life-threatening injuries of fish prevailed: vacuole dystrophy of hepatocytes, dysplasia and lipoid degeneration of hepatocytes. The variety of liver histopathologies detected and the regular nature of the manifestation of these disorders in a significant part of the populations of roach and bream is a possible consequence of the impact of anthropogenic factors.
Key words: Kuibyshev reservoir, mass species of fish, liver histopathology.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.8.52-56

ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY

57 Tyurin V.G., Mysova G.A., Potemkina N.N. Semenov V.G., Vinogradov P.N., Biryukov K.N., Rodionova N.V. Ecological and hygienic requirements for the use of animal waste for irrigation and fertilization of pastures
Ecological and hygienic requirements for the use of animal waste for irrigation and fertilization of cultivated pastures are given. The use of bedless manure and livestock effluents as an organic fertilizer helps to increase the biological productivity of pastures and provides green, juicy fodder for livestock needs and environmental protection. Key words: livestock waste, pastures, organic fertilizers, ecological and hygienic requirements, environmental protection.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2021.25.8.57-60

LABORATORY PRACTICE

61 Kozlova A.D., Gorbacheva N.S., Krasnikova M.S., Bryusova M.B., Yatsentyuk S.P. Development of a kit for the SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in animal samples

A kit for real-time RT-PCR has been developed to detect RNA of the causative agent of a new coronavirus infection in animal samples. Amplification and detection of SARS-CoV-2 are based on two independent target genes. To control the quality of sampling, a system for amplifying the internal endogenous control (animal genomic DNA) was introduced into the kit. The kit showed high specificity within the panel of controls used. The analytical sensitivity of the kit in the study of respiratory swabs and tissue samples was 5x104 copies/ml. Good resistance of components to transportation conditions and freezing/thawing has been proven. Comparison with other PCR kits used for the RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 detection showed comparable sensitivity, high PCR efficiency, and ease of use of the developed kit. The set was tested on samples of biological material from different animal species. In one sample from a cat, a positive result was obtained. Key words: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, polymerase chain reaction.
DOI:10.30896/0042-4846.2022.25.8.61-66

67 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY

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CONTENTS №8-2022