3 Tyurin V.G., Biryukov K.N., Mysova G.А., Potemkina N.N., Semenov V.G., Vinogradov P.N. Veterinary and sanitary and environmental requirements for the processing and disposal of organic animal waste
The main veterinary and sanitary and environmental requirements for the processing and disposal of organic waste at livestock enterprises of various production areas are presented. Technological modes of disinfection of manure and manure with modern methods of their processing are given, which ensure the production of valuable organic fertilizers characterized by high sanitary condition, lack of infectious potential and environmental safety in accordance with the requirements of national and interstate standards. Key words: organic waste, disinfection, environmental safety, veterinary and sanitary requirements, fertilizers.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
10 Sokolova O.V., Shkuratova I.A., Bezborodova N.A., Kozhukhovskaya V.V. Antibiotic resistance of microbiota of mamary gland and reproductive tract of cows
Samples of secretory product of the mammary gland, cervical swabs and scrapings of 81 cows and 5 dairy farms of the Sverdlovsk region (Russia) were analyzed, including areas with high level of environmental pollution (n=49) and areas with relatively stable ecological well-being (n=32). The sensitivity of the isolated microflora towards representatives of 7 classes of antimicrobial substances was determined by disk diffusion method, the degree of distribution of multiresistant strains was established. Bacteria, included in microbiota content of the reproductive tract and the mammary gland of cows (Staph. lugdunensis, Staph. aureus, Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterobacter spp., E. coli), had a low sensitivity to doxycycline, semisynthetic penicillin, ceftriaxone and rifampicine. The obtained isolates of microorganisms were characterized by intermediate sensitivity to meropenem, laevomycetin, doxycycline and ceftriaxone. During the analysis of the frequency of occurrence of multidrug resistance, different bacterial isolates were characterized by multiresistance to 3 or more classes of antibiotics. The largest proportion of multidrug-resistant bacteria was among the isolates of Staph. lugdunensis, E. coli, E. faecalis, Streptococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., which indicates their role in antibiotic resistance spreading of microorganisms within livestock facilities. PCR studies had established genetic determinants (CTX-M, MecA, blaDHA, ErmB), which are responsible for the resistance of etiologically significant microorganisms to antibacterial drugs of the group of inhibitor-protected penicillins, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins of the 1st and 2nd generations, macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramin B (MLSB group of antibiotics). Key words: microbiota, reproductive system, mammary gland, cervical washings, milk, antibiotic resistance, antibiotics, microbiological studies, PCR, cows.
16 Glazunova A.А., Sevskikh T.A., Lunina D.А., Tkacheva I.S. The spread of ASF in the territory of the Samara region
Sporadic outbreaks of ASF have been recorded in the border area of Russia and western Kazakhstan since 2017. The largest epizootic of this disease was registered in 2020 in the Samara region and affected both domestic pigs and wild boars. Using the standard deviation ellipse, we determined a possible trend of the ASF spread with the distribution directed towards the border areas of the Ulyanovsk and Orenburg regions, as well as the southern part of the Samara region and the Republic of Tatarstan. The correlation analysis established an average relationship between ASF outbreaks in wild boars and domestic pigs. A direct relationship between the number of susceptible animals and the number of ASF outbreaks in the region has not been determined. Obtained data elucidates that the ASF spread mostly depends on the anthropogenic factor, rather than on number and density of domestic pigs and wild boar population. Key words: African swine fever, wild boars, pigs, density of wild boars.
22 Marinin L.I., Dyatlov I.A., Tjurin E.A., Mokrievich A.N., Shishkova N.A. Experimental anthrax in domestic swine
The issue of reproduction of experimental anthrax in domestic swine is under consideration. Studies indicate the epidemiological significance of swine infected with the anthrax pathogen. With virtually no pronounced clinical signs of the disease, they can release the pathogen into the environment and retain it in the body for a long time. In the long term after infection (at day 30 – 40) it is impossible to determine the infection in them by methods recommended for its diagnosis. The disease in swine is indicated by serological changes in the blood serum, as well as by a positive skin-allergic reaction. Such individuals represent an epidemiological and epizootological danger to humans eating insufficiently processed meat and to animals when preparing meat and bone meal. Key words: anthrax, domestic swine, epidemiological danger, diagnosis of the disease.
27 Sklyarov O.D., Klimanov A.I., Babicheva O.V., Bukova N.K., Vlasenko V.S., Imeriakova S.A., Novikova N.N., Digtyarenko L.V. Results of comparative evaluation of immunobiological properties of vaccine strains of brucella
The article presents the results of a study of the immunobiological properties of 5 different vaccine strains of Brucella. The degree of dissociation of strain cultures was assessed by testing in the agglutination reaction (RA), complement binding reaction (RSC), indirect hemagglutination reaction (RNGA) and rosebengal test (RBP) of guinea pig serum samples immunized with the studied strains. According to the obtained data, B. abortus RB-51 and 16/4 strains were recognized as inagglutinogenic by S-brucellosis antigen, and B. abortus 82 strain was recognized as weakly agglutinogenic. According to the results of testing, the strains of B. abortus 19 and B. melitensis Rev-1 were assigned to brucella in the S-form. In the postvaccinal period, animals immunized with cultures of these strains in 100,0 % of cases reacted with only S-brucellosis antibodies in RA in titers of 160-320 IU and RNGA-from 1:320 to 1:512. The tests had an equivalent sensitivity, and they could be interchanged. Strains B abortus RB-51, 16/4, and 82 cause the active synthesis of R-brucellosis agglutinins in guinea pigs, which are diagnosed more and are detected after 60 days in 100 % of animals, with the highest level of antibodies recorded 20 days after immunization. A positive result of RBP with a score of 3 crosses in the examination of guinea pigs immunized with non-agglutinogenic or weakly agglutinogenic vaccine strains and infected with a virulent brucella culture indicates the infectious status of animals confirmed by the carrier of a virulent culture. According to the results of the experiment on guinea pigs, the strains of B. melitensis Rev-1, B. abortus 19 and B. abortus 82 had the highest immunogenic activity. The animals of the groups that showed the greatest resistance to infection had the highest bactericidal activity of blood neutrophils in the NST test. Key words: brucellosis, antibody formation, immunogenicity, specific prevention, vaccine.
34 Kazarnikova A.V. Parasite fauna of fish from the Don River delta and eastern part of the Taganrog Bay
The analysis of the epizootic situation (including own and literature data) in the Don River delta and the eastern part of the Taganrog Bay in nowadays conditions is presented. Potentially pathogenic species for fish health (Myxobolus sandrae, Dactylogyrus extensus, D. vastator, Diplozoon paradoxum, Gyrodactylus sprostonae, Ancyrocephalus paradoxus, Caryophyllaeus laticeps, Khawia sinensis, Diplostomum spathaceum, Unionidae gen. sp., Achtheres percarum), causative agents of fish diseases (Ligula intestinalis, Digramma interrupta), and dangerous for animals and human health (Apophallus donicus, Cryptocotyle concavaum, C. lingua, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Eustrongylides excisus) have been identified. The distribution of epizootically significant species in the Azov Sea basin, invasion of fish depending on biotic and abiotic environmental factors, and the negative influence on the host organism have been considered. Key words: parasites, diseases, fish, the Taganrog Bay, the Don River delta.
41 Korochkina E.A., Plemyashov K.V., Nikitin V.V. The influence of vegeto-mineral bolus on the reproduction of dairy cows in the time of increasing the milk yield
The increasing the milk yield is a critical period in the productive career of dairy cows. Successful implementation of this period is increasethe milk production and the profitability of dairy farm respectively. However, the high milk productivity is decrease the level of reproduction, which is expressed by a low percentage of first successful inseminations and a lengthening of the service period. In this regard, the search and testing of ways to increase the reproduction of dairy cows during the milking period is important nowadays. The aim of this research was to study the effect of plant-mineral boluses on the reproductive function of dairy cows during the milk period. The studies were carried out in one of the breeding farms of the Leningrad region on Holstein cows aged from 2 to 7 years. It was two groups (n=80 by each). The cows of the experimental group in the new calving period received plant-mineral boluses Metrabol (2 boluses per animal) during the first 12 hours after calving. For the animals of the control group, the protocol for the management of the new calving period was used (on the day of calving - the injection of antibacterial, myotonic and multivitamin preparations). The high efficiency of the first inseminations among the animals of the experimental group was established. The difference in values with the control was 12,8 % (first lactation); 1,3 % (second lactation); 17,5% (third or more lactation). As for the effectiveness of the second inseminations, higher values were recorded among animals of the control group (the difference in values for lactation – 19; 14,5; 15,8 % compared with the experimental group). More successful third and subsequent inseminations were noted in animals of the experimental group: first lactation – 6,2 %; second lactation – 13,3 %. The difference in values in animals of the third and subsequent lactations between the groups was insignificant (1,8 % more than in the control group). Thus, the use of plant-mineral boluses during the first 12 hours after calving contributes to a faster recovery of the reproductive system of cows in the postpartum period, which is expressed by a higher efficiency of the first inseminations. Key words: dairy cows, increasing the milk yield, vegeto-mineral bolus, reproduction.
44 Musaeva M.N., Aliev A.A., Aliev A.Yu., Karpushchenko K.A., Musaev A.M. Impairment of phosphoric-calcium exchange of cattle
Increasing the production of livestock products is a topical trend in agriculture. In the implementation of this task, the main focus is on the prevention and treatment of diseases of farm animals. The key issue in the prevention of animal diseases is the elimination of metabolic disorders. Disturbance of calcium-phosphorus metabolism along with such diseases as osteodystrophy, rickets, and others, disrupt the absorption of nutrients and microelements by the body. Key words: cattle, macronutrients, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, vitamin D.
47 Bugrov N.S., Vatnikov Yu.A., Semenova V.I., Rudenko P.A. Features of the clinical course of intestinal dysbiosis in cats
Dysbacteriosis in domestic cats is widespread and can lead to a deterioration in the quality of life of the animal or premature death, which is facilitated by poor feeding, taking antibacterial agents, stress and other unfavorable factors. The article assesses the clinical picture of dysbiosis in cats with varying severity of the course. A mild course of dysbiosis in 73,3 % of cats is manifested by halitosis and constipation, in rare cases – hyporexia (20,0 %) and dryness of the outer integument (13,3 %); with moderate severity of all animals, there is a decrease in appetite and halitosis, in 75,0 % – dry skin and mucous membranes, diarrhea; in severe cases – hyporexia, halitosis, dry skin and mucous membranes (100,0 %), pruritus (42,8 %), diarrhea (14,3 %). A mild degree of intestinal dysbiosis in cats was manifested by a significant decrease in the fecal concentration of lacto- and bifidobacteria, an increase in the concentration of streptococci and Klebsiella. With a moderately severe form of intestinal dysbiosis in cats, compared with clinically healthy cats, a significant decrease in the concentration of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was established against the background of a significant increase in the concentration of pseudomonas. With a decompensated course of dysbiosis in cats, a significant decrease in the concentration of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, a significant increase in the concentration of Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Candida fungi were noted. Key words: cat, biotope, dysbacteriosis, diagnosis, bacteriological diagnostics.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
53 Filippova O.B., Frolov A.I., Krasnikova E.S. Adaptogenic symbiotic feed additive for calves
The effectiveness of the use of an adaptogenic synbiotic supplement in the diet of newborn calves was studied. It was found that feeding this supplement during the first month of cultivation increases the resistance of the animal body, increases the reaction of adaptation to the effects of environmental stress factors. Two days after vaccination, the blood sugar level in the calves of the experimental group was within the physiological norm and lower than the corresponding indicator of the control group by 1,61mmol/l. The complex action of the supplement components made it possible to completely eliminate digestive disorders in calves. Feeding the supplement contributed to the normalization of intestinal microbiocenosis. The number of conditionally pathogenic bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia in the intestinal microflora decreased by 10 times compared to the samples of the control group (104 versus 105 CFU/g). Key words: synbiotic, feedadditive, calves, vaccinestress, resistance.
58 Vasilevich F.I., Pozyabin S.V., Bachinskaya V.M. Influence of Abiotonics on the fatty acid composition of broiler chicken meat
Experimental studies of the feed additive Abiotonik were carried out on the basis of the farm SGC "Zagorskoe EPH", at the Department of Parasitology and Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise of the FSBEI HE MGAVMiB-MBA named after K.I. Skryabin, studies of the fatty acid composition of broiler chicken meat at the All-Russian Research Institute of the Poultry Processing Industry (VNIIPP). Two groups of 105 heads each were formed from chickens at one day old of the Smena-8 cross, the experimental group was fed a feed additive at the rate of 1 ml / kg of poultry live weight during 30 days of growing, the slaughter of poultry was carried out on 35 days. Poultry carcasses after 24 hours of maturation in a refrigerating chamber at a temperature of 4 0C were subjected to research according to generally accepted methods: GOST R 53747-2009 “Poultry meat, by-products and semi-finished products from poultry meat. Methods of organoleptic and physicochemical research ”. To study the safety of poultry meat, the methods set forth in the regulatory documents were used: the toxicity of meat samples was determined according to the "Methodological guidelines for the accelerated determination of the toxicity of animal products and feed"; the relative biological value (BV) was determined according to the "Methodological recommendations for the use of the rapid method of biological assessment of food and feed", the fatty acid composition of meat was carried out according to GOST R 55483 – 2013 "Meat and meat products". Determination of Fatty Acid Composition by Gas Chromatography (Reprinted). The use of the feed additive Abiotonik has a positive effect on the body of broiler chickens, this additive contributes to an increase in live weight by 9,2 %, the safety of livestock by 1,9 %, and also reduces the rate of feed consumption per 1 kg of increase in live weight of poultry, which allowed to reduce the cost of 1 kg of live weight gain in the experimental group by 2,6 % compared to the control, these indicators contributed to the economic effect of the use of this feed additive in terms of 1000 head of broiler chickens was 418524 rubles. Also, the use of the feed additive in the diet of broiler chickens did not have a toxic effect on the products obtained, the relative biological assessment of meat in the experimental group was 100,5 %. Studying the fatty acid composition of the meat of broiler chickens of the experimental group, we noted a tendency to an increase in omega-3 in red muscle tissue by 32,3 %, in white muscle tissue by 22,4 %, and omega-6 by 31,9 and 20,1 %, respectively, in relation to the control group. In connection with the above, it is possible to recommend the use of protein hydrolyzate in the diet of broiler chickens to stimulate metabolic processes and increase productivity. Key words: broiler chickens, feed additives, veterinary and sanitary examination, meat safety, fatty acid composition.
62 FROM VETERINARY MEDICINE HISTORY