3 Sibgatullova A.K., Vlasov M.E., Pivova E.Yu., Guzalova A.G., Balyshev V.M. The role of arthropods, hematophagous, rodents, carnivores and birds in the spread of ASF
The article presents the results of domestic and foreign researchers on the reservoirs and mechanical carriers of the African swine fever (ASF) virus, which is currently widespread in Russia and a number of other countries in Europe and Asia. The main reservoirs and vectors of the ASF virus in Africa are argas ticks of the genus Ornithodoros and African wild warthogs, giant forest pigs, and bush pigs, which can infect susceptible animals and contaminate environmental objects with the virus. Mechanical carriers of the ASF virus on the Eurasian continent, including Russia, can be arthropods, hematophagous, rodents, carnivores and birds, of which the most likely are dipteran insects – stingers, carrion flies, horse bloodsuckers and horseflies. They can keep the infectious virus from 2 to 5 days and infect domestic pigs and wild boars during this time. Key words: African swine fever, rodents, wild boars, domestic pigs, ticks, flies, vectors, birds, horseflies.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
10 Engashev S.V., Gusev A.A., Babak V.A. Effect of maternal immunity in chickens on vaccination with inactivated avian influenza vaccine
In the study presents the results of studying the effect of specific maternal antibodies on the formation of active immunity in one-day-old chickens, immunized with an inactivated emulsion vaccine against avian influenza low pathogenic strain. It was found that maternal antibodies prevent the creation of active immunity in chickens in response to vaccination against avian influenza. It is noted that chickens that do not have maternal antibodies, respond positively to immunization by forming intense humoral immunity. Key words: vaccination, poultry farming, transovarial antibodies, humoral immunity, low pathogenic avian flu.
12 Makarov D.A., Gergel M.A. Three challenging problems of honey official control: antimicrobial residues in honey (part 1)
Three actual problems of beekeeping and related challenges of official control in Russia are described in this review article: the problem of antibacterial residues in honey, the problem of honey adulteration, and the problem of harmful impact of pesticides on bees. Antimicrobials are commonly used in beekeping, and their residues are able to persist in honey in notable concentrations for a long time. MRL for them are set only in few countries for several antimicrobials. Russian and foreign regulatory bodies detect violations linked to antimicrobial residues in honey, and that puts barriers to export and domestic sales. Key words: Beekeeping, official control, honey, antibiotic residues, adulteration, pesticides.
18 Nefedchenko A.V., Koteneva S.V., Glotova T.I., Glotov A.G. Monitoring of infection of the semen of bulls with viruses on the artificial insemination center
The results of monitoring the bull’s semen for contamination with viruses of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea at the artificial insemination center for 18 years are presented. The PCR was used to study 13426 semen series obtained in 1985 – 2021 from 274 live and culled bulls stored in deep freeze conditions. The degree of semen contamination with the infectious rhinotracheitis virus was higher and fluctuated in individual years from 16,7 % to 67,6 %. Infectious rhinotracheitis virus was present on average in 3,95 % of series from 16,4 % bulls, and diarrhea virus in 0,4 % of series from 4,1 % of bulls. The presence of a bull persistently infected with the bovine viral diarrhea virus, excreting the virus continuously for 10 months, was established. The genetic profiles of virus isolates from bulls were identical to those from cows highlighting the role of infected semen as one of the main sources of viruses. It is concluded that it is possible to complete a sperm bank from infected bulls in the conditions of a troubled breeding enterprise. According to the results of studies, bulls are not culled but only semen containing viruses are destroyed. Negative test results semen series are used for insemination of breeding stock in farms. Key words: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bulls, sperm, contamination, PCR.
24 Nikitina N.V., Iavdoshak L.I. Inactivated emulsified vaccine Aviparvovac against goose parvovirus infection using new components
The article presents the results of studies related to the replacement of the inactivator of the dimerethyleneimine virus with the biocide Inak and the oil adjuvant Montanide ISA-70 with the chemical reagent AB-4M in the production of the inactivated emulsified vaccine Aviparvovac against goose parvovirus infection. It was shown that the use of these chemical components did not lead to changes in the physicochemical and immunobiological properties of the inactivated vaccine against goose parvovirus infection. The vaccine remains stable, harmless to geese and has high immunogenic properties for 12 months, which provides protection for young geese in the susceptible period from the disease. Key words: parvovirus infection (viral enteritis) of geese, vaccine, specific antibodies.
28 Marinin L.I., Shishkova N.A., Tyurin E.A., Mironova R.I., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A. Effect of the bacteriophage CP-51 Bacillus thuringiensis on the properties of Bacillus anthracis
From soil samples, along with typical strains of B. anthracis, atypical mutants are isolated, the mechanisms of formation of which remain unclear and require study. The mechanisms of variability of B. anthracis in the environment include the effect of those capable of transducing genetic material between B. anthracis and closely related spore-forming microorganisms. Using the CP-51 phage, the effect of closely related microorganisms on the properties of the anthrax pathogen was evaluated. As a result of transduction, phage CP-51 transferred the plasmid rBC16 from B. thuringiensis to B. anthracis, giving the STI-1 strain tetracycline resistance. The variability of biological properties, the formation of new variants of the causative agent of anthrax are of significant importance among the causes of the observed changes in the clinic and epidemiology of the disease. Infection of animals with altered strains of the causative agent of anthrax complicates the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of infection. Key words: anthrax, pathogen, conservability, variability, soil, bacteriophages, plasmids.
33 Galnbek T.V., Kapustina O.V., Kalinin A.G., Vasilyeva A.N., Velichko G.N. Populations of hybrid cells, characterization and virus susceptibility
This article presents data on the study of the effect of cryopreservation and reconservation conditions on the cultural and morphological properties of hybrid cells СхГ, СхГ-2, СхГ-2/5, mutant strain SPEV-TK¯. During three successive passages, the represerved cell lines of cells CxG, CxG-2, CxG-2/5, mutant strain SPEV-TK¯, stored in liquid nitrogen for a long time (1,5 – 2 years) were restored and over the next 12-15 passages have retained they retained their species and cultural-morphological properties. The study of the sensitivity of these cell lines to causative agents of infectious viral diseases of animals and bees showed that the cell line CxG-2 is sensitive to the studied viruses. The highly sensitive hybrid line CxG-2 obtained can be recommended as a cell model for the isolation of field isolates of the MRI virus; development of diagnostic methods for early detection by indirect IPO on a monolayer of cell culture of antigens of the MCI virus (1 day after infection), before the manifestation of signs of pronounced CPP (3 – 4 days). 2. In terms of sensitivity to TGS viruses, Aujeszky's disease and equine rhinopneumonia, the hybrid line CxG-2 was not inferior to the SPEV TK- mutant strain and the control SPEV culture. The levels of reproduction and accumulation of the studied viruses testify to the high sensitivity of the resulting hybrid culture of CxG-2 cells. Key words: hybrid cell lines, cultural and morphological characteristics of the cell line; sensitivity to viruses, immunoperoxidase staining method.
40 Loschinin M.N. Molecular genetic and serological diagnostics of sheep anaplasmosis
Anaplasmosis is a blood – parasitic, transmissible, seasonal, naturally focal disease occurring with signs of anemia, fever and exhaustion, caused obligately by intracellular alphaproteobacteria from the genus Anaplasma of the Anaplasmataceae family of the Rickettsiales order. The causative agent of A. ovis is widely distributed throughout the world. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge about the etiology of sheep anaplasmosis, diagnostic tools and problems of differential diagnosis. The main method of molecular diagnostics for detecting the DNA of the pathogen is PCR, and for detecting antibodies, enzyme immunoassay. Key words: anaplasmosis, Anaplasma ovis, PCR, 16S rRNA, RSC, ELISA.
45 Kashkovskaya L.M., Bobkova M.V., Bondar A.V. Treatment of cows with functional ovarian diseases
The drug Regostenol for luteal cysts in cows showed 75 - 82.6% efficiency. At the same time, recovery was significantly reduced, and reproductive function was restored due to the normalization of the sexual cycle. Key words: luteal cyst, cows, Regostenol, D-cloprostenol, ovulation, treatment.
50 Trebukhov A.V., Bassauer G.M., Dutova O.G., Utz S.A., Belyaeva N.Yu. Pharmacological correction of metabolism during the recovery of physical activity of dogs
The effectiveness of the work of service dogs directly depends on their physical form, which, in turn, depends on the degree of violation of metabolic processes in their body. As a result, there is a need for an effective correction of the exchange and, due to this, an increase in the physical indicators of service dogs. The purpose of the study is to study the effectiveness of the combined use of drugs that restore metabolism on the physical qualities of service dogs. The studies were conducted on 16 clinically healthy dogs of both sexes. Feeding of animals was carried out with dry complete feed. The selected animals were divided into 2 groups. The experimental group was treated with Suiferrovit, succinic acid, and Strolitin for 14 days. Morpho-biochemical examination of 16 dogs under study before the use of drugs revealed metabolic disorders (hypoglycemia up to 3,34±0,25 mmol/l, hyperproteinemia up to 73,9±2,6 g/l), pathology of red blood. After the use of drugs that correct the metabolism. Key words: pathology of metabolism, dogs, exchange stimulants, physical activity.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
57 Popov N.I., Sherbakova G.Sh. The roles find plase of disinfection for the prevention of infection diseases in animal
The article is devoted to measures taken to ensure sanitary well-being and prevent diseases caused by microorganisms of I – IV resistance groups to chemical disinfectants, as well as to prevent outbreaks of infectious animal diseases. Key words: disinfection, aerosols, bactericidal foams, pathogens, microorganisms, infectious diseases.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
67 Tuvardzhiev A.V., Kovalev S.P. Distribution of ampicillin in the body of chicks at aerosol application with potassium iodide
Material is presented on the study of the distribution of ampicillin in the body of 30-day-old chickens with its double aerosol application at a dose of 250 mg/m3 alone and in combination with potassium iodide at a dose of 150 mg/m3. The results of the studies showed that the maximum concentrations of ampicillin in the body of chickens are recorded 1 hour after the repeated administration of the drug. The highest content of the antibiotic is observed in the lungs, kidneys and muscles. The drug circulates in relatively high concentrations in the body of chickens for 3 – 8 hours, eliminating from the body by 24 hours. When inhaling ampicillin in combination with potassium iodide, one hour after the repeated administration of drugs, the concentration of the antibiotic was higher: in the liver – twice, in the blood by 35 %; and lower: 5 times in the kidneys, 16 % in the lungs and 8 % in the muscles than with the use of one ampicillin. At 3 and 6 hours after administration, the level of the antibiotic in the body of chickens of this group was higher, with the exception of the lungs. Moreover, in the group with combined use of drugs, ampicillin was registered. In the blood of chickens and after 24 hours, in other organs and tissues, with the exception of the muscular ventricle, traces of the drug were observed. It can be assumed that potassium iodide, when combined with aerosol application with ampicillin, inhibits the elimination of the antibiotic from the body of chickens and thereby creates higher concentrations of the latter in the organs and tissues of the bird. Key words: poultry farming, aerosols, ampicillin, potassium iodide.
70 Lakhov S.D., Petrova Yu.V., Bachinskaya V.M., Antipov A.A., Lugovaya I.S., Burlakova G.I. Sanitary and hygienic study of feed and evaluation of the sorption properties of the feed additive MaxiSorb®
It is known that mycotoxins not only reduce the quality of feed, but also disrupt the productivity of animals; mycotoxins have the potential to be transformed into livestock products, in particular into milk, making such products extremely dangerous for humans and especially for children. A classic example is the conversion of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1, which can accumulate in milk. Mycotoxins suppress the immune system and affect the normal functioning of major systems and organs, including the rumen, intestinal tract, liver, kidneys, reproductive and nervous systems, etc., are widely reflected in various publications. In a dairy farm, mycotoxin contamination increases the risk of abnormalities such as displaced abomasum, ketosis, retained placenta, metritis, mastitis, and fat metabolism disorders. These diseases are incurable due to expensive and untimely diagnosis with a long period of hidden course. Diet adjustments and changes in farm management practices (distribution into groups, transfer of cows to other places, distribution of stalls for animals) are not effective measures, although they can serve as factors that determine the predisposition to mycotoxicosis. In the available literature, we found isolated sources on the use of bentonite clays in animal husbandry and poultry farming. In this regard, we decided to establish the degree of feed contamination, as well as the effectiveness of the MaxiSorb® feed additive in feed. The studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods. As a result, it was found that the percentage of adsorption in relation to the main types of mycotoxins is at the level of 70 – 100 % aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone – 87–100 %, T-2 toxin and deoxyvalenol – 73 – 77 %. Key words: feed, mycotoxins, sorption properties, MaxisSorb®.