3 Orlyankin B.G. Evolution of living organisms
The article reviews contemporary knowledge of the evolution of life on Earth, namely prokaryotes, eukaryotes and, more specifically, mammals. Main stages of evolution are described, as well as the factors driving it and the genome structure in living organisms. Key words: evolutions, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mammals.
EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
11 Mishchenko A.V., Gulyukin A.M., Gulyukin M.I., Stepanova T.V., Mishchenko V.A., Oganesyan A.S. Analysis of the spread of FMD virus with milk and dairy products
The main goal of this article is to evaluate data on the presence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk and dairy products. We also tried to identify possible risks associated with the storage, transportation of milk and dairy products, as well as to develop recommendations to prevent the spread of the foot-and-mouth disease virus with milk. The article analyses the data on the risk of spread of FMD virus when using raw milk and dairy products of cattle. According to the results, the risk of spread of the FMD virus with milk and dairy products is not to be neglected. Today it is advisable to correct the common measures regarding the handling of milk in contaminated areas. Biosafety measures should also be adjusted on farms in those areas where there is a risk of the occurrence and spread of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Key words: foot-and-mouth disease virus, cattle, milk, pasteurisation.
16 Koteneva S.V., Glotova T.I., Nefedchenko A.V., Glotov A.G. An outbreak coronavirus infection with respiratory syndrome in calves at the big dairy farm
A description of the outbreak of coronavirus infection with respiratory syndrome in calves at the big dairy farm after the importation of heifers from Europe is presented. Clinical signs and mortality were noted in calves between two and six months of ages. An autopsy revealed acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia, inflammation of regional lymph nodes, areas of emphysema in the caudal parts of the lungs, and inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. BCoV,s RNA was detected in the lungs, spleen, pulmonary and mediastinal lymphnodes. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the S and N gene fragments of the isolate confirmed its belonging to the coronavirus (European line). The genome of BVDV-1 was found in the lungs, spleen, mucosa of the small and large intestines. Pasteurella multocida A and Mannheimia haemolytica, are highly pathogenic for white mice, were involved to the infectious process. In recovered calves, a high level of seroconversion to coronavirus was revealed (from 1:2 at the beginning of the disease to 1:512 and higher at the end of it) with a reduced level of specific antibodies to other viruses. The leading etiological role of coronavirus in the etiology of outbreaks of respiratory diseases in calves in case of co-infection with BVDV has been proven. Given the zooanthroponotic potential, the ability to overcome interspecific barriers, a wide range of hosts among farm animals, as well as close contact with humans, BcoV is not only a veterinary problem. Key words: calves, coronavirus infection, PCR, viral diarrhea virus, synergistic interaction.
23 Timofeev V.S., Marinin L.I., Tyurin E.A., Mironova R.I., Goncharova Yu.O., Mokrievich A.N., Dyatlov I.A. Features of anthrax in reindeer
The article describes some epidemiological and clinical features of anthrax infection in reindeer in the tundra zone of Russia, including our own observations made during the outbreak of anthrax in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in 2016. The isolates we isolated in Yamal in 2016 are genetically identical in terms of genome sequencing, so the Yamal 2/16 strain (Yamal-2), isolated from the cervical lymph node of a deer corpse, was chosen as a reference strain for further research. This strain belongs to the evolutionary line B, and more precisely to the canSNP group B.Br.001/002. As of 2016, this was the first discovery of strains of this phylogenetic group in Russia. Group B.Br.001/002 was previously detected only in southern Africa, Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden) and Korea. Keywords: B. anthracis, anthrax, pathogen, soil, deer, tundra, genetic profile.
28 Sereda A.D., Balyshev V.M., Grekhova N.V., Budarkov V.A. Efficiency of vaccination of animals against classical swine fever and anthrax on the background of exposure to ionizing radiation
The article presents the generalized results of studies on the evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccine prevention of farm animals against and a number of zoonotic and anthropozoonotic diseases, registered or threatening to enter the Russian Federation, against the background of radiation immunodeficiency caused by external γ-radiation. Sheep and pigs were the objects of research. The animals were vaccinated against zoonotic and anthropozoonotic infectious diseases: classical swine fever or anthrax. The protective effect of vaccination was assessed by the results of subsequent infection of animals with the corresponding virulent strains. It was found that after vaccination, the animals tolerated the action of γ-radiation more easily. However, vaccination of animals during the height of moderate and severe acute radiation sickness in most cases significantly aggravated its development. The specific immunity created prior to irradiation provided protection for the irradiated animals against the corresponding pathogen. Key words: vaccines, animals, γ-radiation, especially dangerous infectious diseases, acute radiation sickness.
34 Safiullin R.T., Chalysheva E.I. Monitoring of parasitic diseases in the conditions of industrial-type turkey farms
Monitoring of parasitic diseases was carried out by examining faecal samples from turkeys of different ages and opening carcasses, the age and seasonal dynamics of infection with eimeria, as well as contamination of environmental objects with oocysts in industrial-type turkey farms in the Central region of Russia, were established. The highest infestation of males was at 35 – 49 days of age, EI – 30 – 45 %, and females at 35 – 49 – 63 days of age, EI – 5 – 30 %. In different seasons of the year, the prevalence of Eimeria in young turkeys with industrial production technology did not differ much. Determination of the species composition of Eimeria showed the presence of the following species: Eimeria meleagrimitis (80 %), E.meleagridis (15 %), E.adenoids (5 %). Key words: turkey farms, young animals of different ages, monitoring, parasitosis, extensiveness and invasion intensity.
40 Bondarenko G.A., Solovieva I.A., Trukhina T.I. Epizootological situation on helminthiases of cattle in the Amur region
The analysis of the epizootic situation for 2016 – 2019 on helminthiasis of cattle in the Amur region was carried out. The circulation of 12 nosological units of helminths from the class Trematoda, Cestoda and Trematoda was registered. At the same time, strongylatosis and monieziosis are constantly recorded, as well as frequently occurring neoascariasis and strongyloidiasis. Key words: helminthiases, cattle, epizootological situation, Amur region.
43 Shakarboev E.B., Azimov D.A., Turgunov S.N., Berdibaev A.S., Abdukodirova Z.S. Epizootology of toxocarosis of dogs in the north-west and eastern regions of Uzbekistan
The results of studies on toxocariasis in dogs are presented. Out of 49 dogs subjected to helminthological autopsy, 26 (53,1%) were infested with the nematode Toxocara canis, with an invasion intensity of 11,2±0,6 ind. A coproovoscopic examination of 132 dogs revealed that they were infected with toxocariasis by 79 (59,8 %), rural – 22 (16,6 %), urban – 57 (43,6 %). The dependence of infection of dogs with toxocara on age has been established, i.e. up to 6 months of age – 51%, from 6 months to 1 year – 30 %, from 1 year to 3 years – 17.6%, over 3 years – 1,4 %. In dogs, toxocariasis was more frequently recorded in males (49,7±3,2%) than in females (40,3±2,4 %). Key words: nematode, Toxocara canis, toxocariasis, extensiveness and intensity of invasion, seasonal dynamics, Uzbekistan.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
46 Saipullaev M.S., Koichuev A.U., Gadzhimuradova Z.T., Batyrova A.M., Saipullaev U.M. Measures to control avian eimeriosis
The article presents the results of studies on the disinfection of oocysts of eimeria of birds with a new method of disposal of bedding manure and disinfestation of poultry premises – a new environmentally friendly means Penox-2. Research has established that the most optimal method of biothermal disinfection of bedding manure from eimeria oocysts is collection inside the premises (workshop) in piles, 1,5 – 2,0 m high, 2 – 2,5 m wide, arbitrary length. At the same time, the collars on top and sides were covered with sawdust, 10 – 15 cm thick, covered on top with two layers of cellophane film (hermetically). It was found that the average temperature in the heaps reached 54,6 – 70 0С on days 20, at which the bird eimeria oocysts were completely disinfected. After biothermal treatment of litter manure, the surfaces of the premises where the poultry were kept were disinfested with solutions of the new disinfectant and whitewash agent Penox-2. Tests have shown that the solutions of the new agent disinfect the surfaces of the premises, equipment and inventory from bird eimeria oocysts in 3 hours of exposure, at a consumption of 0,5 l/m2 of disinfectant solution. Key words: Penox-2, сoncentration, exposure, disinfectant solution consumption, eimeria oocysts, biothermal treatment, disinfestation, irrigation.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
52 Engashev S.V., Engasheva E.S., Kolesnikov V.I., Koshkina N.A. Antiparasitic action of the drug DELCID® 7,5 in case of wohlfahrtiosis of cattle
In order to study the antiparasitic action of a new acaricide in the farm of the Stavropol Territory, three groups of animals with traumatic lesions of the skin were formed. All calves of the experimental group No. 1 (8 animals) with skin lesions were treated with the experimental drug DELCID® 7,5 by applying it to the skin of the back, from the head to the base of the tail along the spine, at a dose of 10 ml per 100 kg of live weight of the animal, on one occasion. It was found that the insecticidal effect occurred after 3 days, and the duration of the protective effect of the drug DELCID® 7,5 against Wohlfahrtia magnifica, in which the coefficient of repellent action was above 70 %, lasted 35 days. The treatment of calves of the experimental group No. 2 (5 animals) was carried out by applying the drug DELCID® 7,5 to the affected parts of the animal body with the larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica with a cotton pad with a consumption rate of 0,2 ml/cm2 and it was found that the death of the larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica occurred 60 minutes after drug administration. The calves of the control group No. 3 (8 animals) were infested throughout the experiment – 42 days. Key words: calves, DELCID® 7,5, efficiency, larvae, wohlfahrtiosis, dipterans.
55 Narusbayeva M.A., Zakharov A.Yu., Bokarev A.V., Gorokhov V.E., Stekolnikov A.A., Titova E.V. X-ray studies of the distal extremities of cattle in the conditions of livestock complexes
Currently, a new large commercial agro-industrial production has been formed in Russia. The enormous damage caused by surgical diseases of the joints of the limbs and hooves. The economic damage in this case consists of three main points: forced culling of animals; reduced productivity and treatment costs. In the course of the study, we performed differential diagnosis of surgical diseases in the distal extremities of cattle using radiography. Based on the data obtained, we proposed a number of measures aimed at reducing the economic losses caused by surgical diseases of the hooves and joints of the extremities. Key words: cow, cattle, surgical diseases, joints, radiography, arthrosis.
58 Kulachenko I.V., Bocharov A.V., Chueva I.V. Clinical interpretation of biochemical blood studies results in disorders of cows’ protein metabolism
The state of protein metabolism in highly productive dairy cows of the industrial complex was analyzed according to the results of biochemical studies of blood taken during the medical examination of the livestock in the first months of lactation. Its hidden preclinical disorders were finger on, manifested by the elevated level occurrence of total protein in the blood serum (hyperproteinemia) in four (83,1 g/l; 83,3 g/l; 84,5 g/l; 90,5 g/l) of the fourteen tested cows, a decrease in albumin content below the norm (hypoalbuminemia) in one cow (27,4 g/l), an increase in globulins (hyperglobulinemia) in 11 cows (43,0 – 56,9 mg/l) and a decrease in the albumin-globulin ratio (dysproteinemia) in 11 cows (0,56 – 0,80). The noted disorders can lead to serious consequences with the development of pathology not only in the blood, but also in other cow’s biological fluids. Key words: cows, protein metabolism, diagnostics, protein, albumins, globulins, urea, disorders.