CONTENTS №4-2024

3 Orlyankin B.G., Aliper T.I. Viral escape from host immune response

Up-to-date information on the innate and adaptive immune response against viruses and the latter’s capacity for counteraction to evade the host’s defence mechanisms. Escape mechanisms employed by the most dangerous and significant viruses such as HIV, SARS-CoV-2 and herpesviruses are described in detail. Key words: viruses, innate and adaptive immunity, immune escape.



10 Davydova N.V., Afonyushkin V.N., Shtepa V.N., Baumbax O.A., Ermakova L.P., Bardasheva A.V., Tikunov A.Yu. The effect of the drug colistin on yeast-like fungi, isolated from poultry

The purpose of the study was to study the possibility of suppressing the growth of yeast-like fungi with the antibiotic colistin and to evaluate the effects of damage to the cell wall of the fungi. Isolation of yeast-like fungi was carried out from samples of pathological material (liver, intestinal contents) from chickens with signs of candidiasis (foamy contents in the intestines, hepatitis), in poultry farms there was an increased mortality of chickens in the first 10 days of life, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics contributed to an increase in the mortality of chickens from of this pathology. We studied the yeast-like fungi Candida glabrata, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida albicans – Candida spp., Rhodosporidium spp. To study the dynamics of fungal cell death, the LIVE/DEAD method was used. The antifungal activity of colistin was also assessed using the disk diffusion method. The fact of death of fungal cells through the mechanisms of damage to the cell wall by colistin has been established. Severe membrane permeabilization, in the presence of polymyxin (colistin) in isolates of yeast-like fungi, was observed in cultures of Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida spp., Candida albicans. The data obtained allow us to consider colistin as the drug of choice for antibiotic treatment of poultry characterized by an increased risk of developing fungal infections. Key words: Candida, Debaryomyces, colistin, polymyxin, chickens, candidiasis, fluorescence microscopy.


16 Mukhamedshina A.R., Belova L.M. Vaccination and disinfection in industrial poultry, livestock and fish farming

The article presents various ways to avoid epizootias at industrial-type agricultural enterprises, as well as modern equipment for therapeutic and preventive measures.  Key words: vaccination, syringes, dosing units, disinfection, sprayers, fly-killers.


23 Elizarova E.A., Klyapnev A.V., Kuznetsov E.G., Parkhomenko S.A., Zeynalov O.A. Treatment of parvovirus enteritis in puppies using recombinant canine interferon alpha (Dogferon®)

Parvovirus enteritis is one of the most highly contagious infections in dogs. In the last few months of 2023, about 60 cases of parvovirus enteritis in dogs were identified in the Nizhny Novgorod region, despite compliance with all terms and conditions of vaccination. Dogferon® (canine interferon alpha) was used as an antiviral drug. The drug Dogferon®, used in the treatment regimen for the disease, not only increases the effectiveness of treatment of animals, but also prevents the development of severe or complicated parvovirus enteritis. Key words: parvovirus, enteritis, dogs, interferon, Dogferon®.



28 Vlasov M.E., Kudryashov D.A., Sindryakova I.P., Sevskikh T.A., Pivova E.Yu., Lyska V.M., Sereda A.D., Balyshev V.M. Comparative assessment of the pathogenicity of the African swine fever virus circulating in the Russian Federation since 2007

The article summarizes new and previously published data on the virulence of    African swine fever virus isolated in Russia from 2007 to 2021, as well as the effectiveness of certain diagnostic methods for different forms of the disease. It was found that the majority of experimentally infected pigs died with signs of acute and subacute forms of the disease, but in some cases, hyperacute and chronic forms of African swine fever (ASF) were registered. It is shown that the virus and fragments of its genome can be detected in the blood of infected animals on days 3 – 5, with peak levels on days 7– 10 in cases of acute, subacute, and chronic forms of ASF, and on days 10 – 14 in asymptomatic cases. In pigs with asymptomatic ASF, the virus was not detected in the blood or organs after 35 days of infection (the end of the experiment), and according to PCR-RV data, fragments of the virus genome were either detected in low concentrations or absent during this period. However, virus-specific antibodies in animals were detected from day 10 after infection and throughout the experiment. Key words: African swine fever, isolates, strains, pathogenicity, virulence, forms of the disease.


35 Prasolova O.V., Isakova D.G., Kosovsky G.Yu. Review of vaccine research and development worldwide

Vaccines have a huge impact on public health and their importance has been emphasised by the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the data analysed, as of 1 January 2023, the vaccine research and development landscape included 966 vaccine candidates, among which 23 % are traditional inactivated or attenuated vaccines. Recombinant protein vaccines account for the largest share of the development pipeline at 22 %. The successful launch of mRNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has fuelled the development of nucleic acid-based vaccine platforms, which include RNA- and DNA-based vaccines. Such platforms now account for the next largest segment of the overall pipeline at 18 %. Viral vector vaccines (14 %) have also attracted attention in recent years due to their ability to induce robust and sustained immune responses. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of registrations of vaccines created using molecular biology techniques, accounting for almost 20 % of the total vaccine market Based on a review of patent data, we found that most patent applications were filed in North America, Asia and Europe, which coincides with the location of the largest companies and institutions. Key words: vaccines, technology platforms, COVID-19.


39 Zybina T.N., Pyatkina A.A., Moroz N.V., Kulakov V.Yu., Shcherbakova L.O. Immunological properties of lentogenic ARRIAH ND-EN strain of Newcastle disease virus

Lentogenic ARRIAH ND-En strain of Newcastle disease virus isolated from latently infected broilers in the Kemerovo Oblast of the Russian Federation was tested for its immunological properties. Tested virus strain was found to have tropism to both chicken respiratory tissues and intestine tissues where the viral genome accumulated to higher levels (p<0,005). The tested virus ingested by the poultry at a dose of 5,5 lg EID50 was able to induce anti-NDV circulating antibodies at an average titer of at least 4 log2 16 days after ingestion. Challenge test using highly virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus on day 21 showed that estimated protective immunity level was 92 %. An indicator of tissue tropism of the tested virus strain was amplification cycle threshold value defined with    OT-PCR that reflected initial viral genome concentration in cells of given tissue type. The dynamics of post-vaccination humoral immune response of the poultry was dose-dependent and within tested time interval could be described by regression models that allowed objective justification of the choice of an immunizing dose. Vaccination of the poultry with ARRIAH ND-En strain caused no side effects and conferred effective protection from challenge with highly virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus. Key words: newcastle disease, lentogenic strains, humoral immunity, protective immunity.



46 Denisenko V.Yu., Kuzmina T.I. Biotesting of porcine oocytes using an inhibitory analysis of calcium mobilization from intracellular stores

The involvement of cytoskeletal elements in the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (IS) at the effect of prolactin (PRL) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on porcine oocytes in different functional states was studied using a fluorescent probe chlortetracycline (CTC) and inhibitory analysis. The functional status of oocytes was determined by staining gametes with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB test). Growing oocytes [BCB(–)] utilized the dye and lost the color of the ooplasm, the gametes that have finished growth phase [BCB(+)] remained blue. It was found that in oocytes that have finished growth phase, the combined action of PRL and GTP stimulated additional release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, but no additional release of Ca2+ was observed in growing oocytes. After treatment of BCB(–) oocytes with the microfilament polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D, additional release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores was observed in the cells in response to the combined action of PRL and GTP. Treatment of oocytes with the inhibitor cytochalasin D and subsequent re-staining of cells with brilliant cresyl blue dye showed that the cytoplasm of BCB(+) oocytes was still colored blue. The experimental results indicate the possibility of biotesting the functional status of oocytes, taking into account the difference in the response of cells treated with the microfilament inhibitor to the effects of prolactin and guanosine triphosphate. Key words: porcine oocytes, intracellular calcium stores, prolactin, GTP, BCB test.


51 Malakhova L.S., Omarov A.A., Surov A.I., Karpova E.D. The effectiveness of stimulation of reproductive function in sheep in the spring period with various gonadotropins

The article presents the results on the effectiveness of stimulation of reproductive function in Tashli sheep in the spring period using two hormonal treatment regimens: using vaginal pessaries with megestrol acetate and gonadotropins Follimag and Folligon. Both variants of hormonal treatment ensured the onset of oestrus in 80,0 and 85,0  % of the experimental animals. When used in the scheme of hormonal treatment of PMSG Follimag, the fertilization rate according to the results of lambing was 75,0 % with a fertility of 116,7  %. When using PMSG Folligon, fertilization and fertility were 1,5 % higher, and 6,4 % respectively, with an unreliable difference. Key words: sheep, megestrol acetate, pessary, Follimag, Folligon, artificial insemination, fertilization, fertility.



55 Karamyan A.S., Vatnikov Yu.A., Shabunin S.V. Comparative evaluation of the gastrotoxicity of the drugs Carprofen RDF and Norocarp

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicaments are widely used in veterinary medicine, despite the fact that their use inevitably leads to the emergence of various side effects. In the course of our research we conducted comparative evaluation of two dosage forms of carprofen – gelatin  films for subbucal application and pills for oral administration. Key words: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), rapidly dissolving films (RDF), carprofen, pharmacokinetics, toxicity.






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CONTENTS №4-2024