3 Gerunov T.V., Gerunova L.K., Fedorov Yu.N. Classification of the officinal immunomodulators listed in the state register of medicines for veterinary use
At present time the range of immunomodulators for veterinary use has been considerably diversified. However there is no common classification of immunomodulators in veterinary medicine. The objective of this research was both classification and a comparative assessment of immunomodulators registered in the territory of the Russian Federation. Thus, the analysis of the State register of medicines for veterinary use was carried out. Of all drugs authors graded 47 immunomodulators which were divided into groups by origin: cytokine-type medications (interleykins and interferons), tissue derived medications (preparations derived from a placenta, lien and colostrums), bacterial drugs (bacterial peptidoglikans and polysaccharides, combined drugs and immunoprobiotics), yeast products, herbal medicinal products, synthetic medicines and homeopathic medicines. Authors pointed the necessity of continuing researches in the field of clinical pharmacology of immunoactive agents to obtain reliable scientific information about efficiency and safety of certain medications. Key words: immunomodulator, classification, immunostimulation, immunopharmacology, pharmacodynamics, the action mechanism, medicines for animals, the state register.
PRACTIC: EXPERIMENT, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES
11 Tselueva N.I., Kugelev I.M., Myasnikova N.G. Analysis of epizotical situation of bovine virus leukosis in the Smolensk region
There was made the analysis of the epizootic situation of BVL in the Smolensk region. Key words: AGID, BVL, cattle, disease, haemotological assay, infection, serological assay.
14 Dimova A.S., Sizov D.A., Mashnin A.V., Vorobiev V.I. Efficiency of the IDEXX ELISA system for serological diagnostics of brucellosis in non-vaccinated cattle livestock
The IDEXX Brucellosis Serum Ab Test (Brucellosis Antibody Test Kit), providing specificity and high diagnostic sensitivity, has prospects of wide use for diagnostic of bovine brucellosis in non-vaccinated livestock. Key words: antibodies, brucellosis, cattle, serological diagnosis.
17 Chalchenko A.B. Epidemiology and prevention of clostridiosis cattle
The article tells us about 11 types of Clostridium that cause in cattle the following diseases: quarter evil, bradsot (gangrenous emphysema), anaerobic enterotoxaemia and so on. This disease leads to death that causes huge economic losses. That is why it`s reasonable to vaccinate cattle in order to prevent these aerobic diseases. Key words: cattle, clostridia, emphysematous carbuncle (gangrene), malignant edema, anaerobic enterotoxemia, toxin, vaccine.
20 Zolotova N.S., Pleshakova V.I., Leshcheva N.A., Zabolotnykh M.V. Enterobiocenosis of chicken-broilers received an feed enzyme additive
The article gives the results of studying the effect of the feed enzyme additive Сibenza DP 100 on the microflora of the alimentary tract of broilers, as well as the production indices of their growing. There were reduced the number of opportunistic bacteria (lactose-positive Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Citrobacter diversus) in the intestine of birds that received it. It was observed the qualitative changes composition of intestine microflora (appearance of Serratia spp. and Proteus vulgaris) in the control group chicks which got the basic diet without the above mentioned feed additive. The use of Сibenza DP 100 helped improve the production performance of broiler farming by increasing the digestibility of feed nutrients. Key words: broilers, enterobiocenosis, feed enzyme additive, production indices.
24 Latypova Z.A., Sarbakanova Sh.T., Sultanov A.A., Aubekerova L.S., Kasymova K.T. Allelic polymorphism of the BOLA-DRB3 gene in cattle of black-motley and Alatau breeds of Kazakhstan
The results of allelic polymorphism of the gene Bola-DRB3 in cattle of black-motley and Alatau breed of Kazakhstan are given in the article. A total of 17 alleles were identified from 54 known ones, 16 alleles in cattle of black motley breed, 14 alleles in cattle of Alatau breed, which indicates a low level of allelic diversity in the studied rocks. Genetic profiles of cattle of black and motley breed are dominated by genotypes of BLVresistance. The Alatau cattle breed has a dominant genotype with neutral alleles. Key words: cattle, black-motley breed, Alatau breed, leukemia, BolA-DRB3 gene, alleles, genotype, resistance.
27 Blokhin A.A., Zhivoderov S.P. Manifestation of avian influenza H5N8 in Russia
The article presents information on the spread and manifestation character of avian influenza caused by a subtype H5N8. The temporal and spatial boundaries of the spread of avian influenza have been determined. It is shown that, starting from 2016, the disease tends to spread throughout the country. It is established that an important role in the introduction and the spread of avian influenza is played by such risk factors as insufficient level of biological protection, which is expressed in the absence of a clear zoning of production areas, conditions for nesting wild birds, the absence of sanitary discipline and the fixing of person and the intersection of routes traffic and human flows, the lack of vaccination of susceptible livestock, the close inter connection of poultry farms and private farms. It is suggested, that high tourist activity in a number of regions of the country can contribute to the introduction of the influenza virus of a subtype H5N8 by tourists from the countries of South-East Asia. We believe that the mortality of birds over 13,8% is the reason to suspect the presence of an infectious disease, including avian influenza.The dynamics of pathoanatomical changes characteristic of subtype H5N8 is shown, manifesting as lesions of mucous and serous membranes of the digestive and ovarian organs, an increase in the spleen and a violation of the permeability of the vascular bed. Laboratory studies have shown that influenza virus subtype H5N8 has high pathogenicity, i.e., the intravenous pathogenicity index is 2.85. Key words: avian influenza, H5N8, monitoring, quarantine.
31 Lenchenko E.M., Antonova A.N. The study of biofilms and phenotypic characteristics of bacteria
It was investigated structural, functional and densitometric peculiarities of formation of biofilms grampositive and gramnegative bacteria. When examining the phenotypic traits installed heterogeneous population structure of microorganisms. Key words: adhesion, bacteria, biofilm, extracellular matrix, microscopy, optical density.
35 Cheskidova L.V. Evaluation of embryo- and fetotoxic action of Primapenum
The article presents the results of studying embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of Рrimapenum on albino rats during antenatal period of development. Investigated drug was subcutaneously administered to female albino rats in therapeutic and threefold therapeutic doses during pregnancy. The action of the drug on pregnant animals’ organisms, survivability of fetuses and presence of maldevelopments in them was evaluated during the whole experiment. The studies realized stated that Primapenum didn’t possess teratogenic and embryotoxic properties. Key words: embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, albino rats, Primapenum.
38 Erokhin A.S., Ushakova S.N., Blokhina T.M., Arkhangelskaia E.Yu., Osipov A.N. Method of DNA comet for the study of DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa during storage at chilled and frozen state
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm DNA integrity in fresh, chilled and frozen-thawed boar semen using the alkaline comet assay. In the first experiment, the DNA integrity in fresh boar sperm of landrace, yorkshir and duroc breeds was compared. In the second experiment the sperm DNA electrophoretic mobility was assessed following after 0, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h of storage chilled boar semen at 17 0С. In the third experiment the boar semen was frozen in Tris- EDTA(Na2)-glucose-egg-yolk diluent. The fresh ejaculated sperm of different boars breed showed low levels of the DNA damage. Higher DNA electrophoretic mobility in the fresh sperm was found in the duroc breed. The level of sperm DNA damage in chilled semen did not change during the 72 h of storage at 17 0С, but had a large increase after the 72 h storage. Frozen-thawed sperm incubated at 37 0С showed an increase in the rate of DNA damage after 3 h (P<0,01). Key words: boar, sperm, comet assay, DNA integrity, chilled semen, frozen-thawed semen.
ZOOHYGIENA, SANITATION, ECOLOGY
43 Nikolaenko V.P., Shestakov I.N., Kononov A.N., Ojeredova N.A., Mihaylova A.V. Schedrov I.N. The aerosol appliance of preparation Niсosan in broiler farming
A new domestic preparation Niсosan for poultry industry is developed. It belongs to the group of cationic surfactants. The material presents its aerosol usage for disinfection in hatchery during broiler farming. Normal concentration of the preparation is defined. Key words: aerosol, Nicosan, brooding, broilers, live weight, safety, concentration.
46 Trebukhov A.V. Clinical and biochemical aspects of ketosis in dairy cows
In the conditions of intensive livestock production even minor errors in feeding, maintenance and operation conditions often lead to the development metabolic diseases. Among them ketosis of dairy cows takes one of the first places by incidence. The purpose of research is to study dependence between clinical severity of ketosis syndrome in cows and level of total ketone bodies in the blood. The study was conducted on dairy cows with ketosis diagnosis. During study, the cows were subjected to clinical and biochemical examination. Biochemical blood analysis was focused on determined the following values- total ketone bodies (TKB), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB), acetoacetic acid and acetone (AcAc), BHB/AcAc ratio, glucose and reserve alkaline level of blood. The results of the study show that ketosis of cows had clinical manifestations through the acetonemic syndrome – 65 % of cases, and more rare through the gastroenteric (21%) and hepatotoxic syndromes (14 %). The comparison of the ketone body levels and ketosis syndromes has revealed that the acetonemic syndrome is accompanied by the greatest TKB and BHB/AcAc ratio values. The gastroenteric syndrome is accompanied by intermediate TKB, BHB and AcAc values, and the minimum levels of glucose and alkaline reserve. The hepatotoxic syndrome is accompanied by the minimum TKB and BHB/AcAc ratio values, and the greatest glucose and alkaline reserve levels as compared to the other syndromes. Key words: cows, diagnostics, ketosis symptoms, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, acetonemia.
49 RydenkoA.A. Citokine profile of blood serum in dogs with mitral valve endocardiosis
Serum concentrations of interleukins 1α, 6, 8 and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum of dogs with mitral valve endocardiosis is higher than in clinically healthy animals. The levels of these proinflammatory cytokines are especially high in dogs with pulmonary edema, left atrial remodeling and cardiogenic cachexia, and also they positively correlate with the functional class of chronic heart failure and the size of the left atrium. Their activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endocardiosis. Key words: interleukins, dog, tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokines, endocardiosis.
55 Gulyaeva A.S., Peshkin E.A., Roshchevskaya I.M. The electrocardiogram of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) at different position of the body
The comparative analysis of the ECG and electrical axis of the heart of mature anesthetized ferrets is carried out at sternal and vertical body positions. Significant changes of the initial atrial activity, final ventricular activity, arrhythmia on the ECG of the animals in the II assignment from extremities are revealed at the different body positions. Key words: ferret, heart, ECG.
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
60 Vertiprakhov V.G., Titov V.Y., Gogina N.N., Grozina A.A. Changes of the activities pancreatic enzymes and development of inflammation as a responses to experimentally mycotoxicosis in broiler chicks
The experiment was performed on broilers (cross “Smena-8”) with duodenum fistula. It was found that dietary T-2 toxin tends to accumulate quantitatively within the body while the accumulation of HT-2 toxin up to 65% depending on its dietary concentration. No significant changes in the activities of pancreatic enzymes in serum in response to dietary exposure to the mycotoxins were found while amylolytic and proteolytic activities in the duodenal digesta were significantly increased. The concentrations of serum nitroso compounds evidenced that the exposure to mycotoxins can promote inflammation in chicken. Key words: broilers, duodenal digesta, mycotoxins, pancreatic enzymes, serum nitroso compounds.